The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia. / Damgaard, Peter de Barros; Martiniano, Rui; Kamm, Jack; Moreno Mayar, José Víctor; Kroonen, Guus; Peyrot, Michaël; Barjamovic, Gojko; Rasmussen, Simon; Zacho, Claus Grønlund; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Zaibert, Victor; Merz, Victor; Biddanda, Arjun; Merz, Ilja; Loman, Valeriy; Evdokimov, Valeriy; Usmanova, Emma; Hemphill, Brian; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Yediay, Fulya Eylem; Ullah, Inam; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Iversen, Katrine Højholt; Choin, Jeremy; de la Fuente Castro, Constanza; Ilardo, Melissa; Schroeder, Hannes; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Gromov, Andrey; Polyakov, Andrei; Omura, Sachihiro; Senyurt, Süleyman Yücel; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Ahmad, Habib; McKenzie, Catriona; Margaryan, Ashot; Hameed, Abdul; Samad, Abdul; Gul, Nazish; Khokhar, Muhammad Hassan; Goriunova, O. I.; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.; Novembre, John; Weber, Andrzej W.; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus ; Kristiansen, Kristian; Sikora, Martin; Outram, Alan K.; Durbin, Richard; Willerslev, Eske.

In: Science, Vol. 360, No. 6396, 1422, 2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Damgaard, PDB, Martiniano, R, Kamm, J, Moreno Mayar, JV, Kroonen, G, Peyrot, M, Barjamovic, G, Rasmussen, S, Zacho, CG, Baimukhanov, N, Zaibert, V, Merz, V, Biddanda, A, Merz, I, Loman, V, Evdokimov, V, Usmanova, E, Hemphill, B, Seguin-Orlando, A, Yediay, FE, Ullah, I, Sjögren, K-G, Iversen, KH, Choin, J, de la Fuente Castro, C, Ilardo, M, Schroeder, H, Moiseyev, V, Gromov, A, Polyakov, A, Omura, S, Senyurt, SY, Orlando, LAA, Ahmad, H, McKenzie, C, Margaryan, A, Hameed, A, Samad, A, Gul, N, Khokhar, MH, Goriunova, OI, Bazaliiskii, VI, Novembre, J, Weber, AW, Allentoft, ME, Nielsen, R, Kristiansen, K, Sikora, M, Outram, AK, Durbin, R & Willerslev, E 2018, 'The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia', Science, vol. 360, no. 6396, 1422. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar7711

APA

Damgaard, P. D. B., Martiniano, R., Kamm, J., Moreno Mayar, J. V., Kroonen, G., Peyrot, M., ... Willerslev, E. (2018). The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia. Science, 360(6396), [1422]. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar7711

Vancouver

Damgaard PDB, Martiniano R, Kamm J, Moreno Mayar JV, Kroonen G, Peyrot M et al. The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia. Science. 2018;360(6396). 1422. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar7711

Author

Damgaard, Peter de Barros ; Martiniano, Rui ; Kamm, Jack ; Moreno Mayar, José Víctor ; Kroonen, Guus ; Peyrot, Michaël ; Barjamovic, Gojko ; Rasmussen, Simon ; Zacho, Claus Grønlund ; Baimukhanov, Nurbol ; Zaibert, Victor ; Merz, Victor ; Biddanda, Arjun ; Merz, Ilja ; Loman, Valeriy ; Evdokimov, Valeriy ; Usmanova, Emma ; Hemphill, Brian ; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine ; Yediay, Fulya Eylem ; Ullah, Inam ; Sjögren, Karl-Göran ; Iversen, Katrine Højholt ; Choin, Jeremy ; de la Fuente Castro, Constanza ; Ilardo, Melissa ; Schroeder, Hannes ; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav ; Gromov, Andrey ; Polyakov, Andrei ; Omura, Sachihiro ; Senyurt, Süleyman Yücel ; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre ; Ahmad, Habib ; McKenzie, Catriona ; Margaryan, Ashot ; Hameed, Abdul ; Samad, Abdul ; Gul, Nazish ; Khokhar, Muhammad Hassan ; Goriunova, O. I. ; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I. ; Novembre, John ; Weber, Andrzej W. ; Allentoft, Morten Erik ; Nielsen, Rasmus ; Kristiansen, Kristian ; Sikora, Martin ; Outram, Alan K. ; Durbin, Richard ; Willerslev, Eske. / The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia. In: Science. 2018 ; Vol. 360, No. 6396.

Bibtex

@article{df0ba9c9c2ab4120b8f34cb000210226,
title = "The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia",
abstract = "The Eurasian steppes reach from the Ukraine in Europe to Mongolia and China. Over the past 5000 years, these flat grasslands were thought to be the route for the ebb and flow of migrant humans, their horses, and their languages. de Barros Damgaard et al. probed whole-genome sequences from the remains of 74 individuals found across this region. Although there is evidence for migration into Europe from the steppes, the details of human movements are complex and involve independent acquisitions of horse cultures. Furthermore, it appears that the Indo-European Hittite language derived from Anatolia, not the steppes. The steppe people seem not to have penetrated South Asia. Genetic evidence indicates an independent history involving western Eurasian admixture into ancient South Asian peoples.Science, this issue p. eaar7711INTRODUCTIONAccording to the commonly accepted “steppe hypothesis,” the initial spread of Indo-European (IE) languages into both Europe and Asia took place with migrations of Early Bronze Age Yamnaya pastoralists from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. This is believed to have been enabled by horse domestication, which revolutionized transport and warfare. Although in Europe there is much support for the steppe hypothesis, the impact of Early Bronze Age Western steppe pastoralists in Asia, including Anatolia and South Asia, remains less well understood, with limited archaeological evidence for their presence. Furthermore, the earliest secure evidence of horse husbandry comes from the Botai culture of Central Asia, whereas direct evidence for Yamnaya equestrianism remains elusive.RATIONALEWe investigated the genetic impact of Early Bronze Age migrations into Asia and interpret our findings in relation to the steppe hypothesis and early spread of IE languages. We generated whole-genome shotgun sequence data (~1 to 25 X average coverage) for 74 ancient individuals from Inner Asia and Anatolia, as well as 41 high-coverage present-day genomes from 17 Central Asian ethnicities.RESULTSWe show that the population at Botai associated with the earliest evidence for horse husbandry derived from an ancient hunter-gatherer ancestry previously seen in the Upper Paleolithic Mal’ta (MA1) and was deeply diverged from the Western steppe pastoralists. They form part of a previously undescribed west-to-east cline of Holocene prehistoric steppe genetic ancestry in which Botai, Central Asians, and Baikal groups can be modeled with different amounts of Eastern hunter-gatherer (EHG) and Ancient East Asian genetic ancestry represented by Baikal_EN.In Anatolia, Bronze Age samples, including from Hittite speaking settlements associated with the first written evidence of IE languages, show genetic continuity with preceding Anatolian Copper Age (CA) samples and have substantial Caucasian hunter-gatherer (CHG)–related ancestry but no evidence of direct steppe admixture.In South Asia, we identified at least two distinct waves of admixture from the west, the first occurring from a source related to the Copper Age Namazga farming culture from the southern edge of the steppe, who exhibit both the Iranian and the EHG components found in many contemporary Pakistani and Indian groups from across the subcontinent. The second came from Late Bronze Age steppe sources, with a genetic impact that is more localized in the north and west.CONCLUSIONOur findings reveal that the early spread of Yamnaya Bronze Age pastoralists had limited genetic impact in Anatolia as well as Central and South Asia. As such, the Asian story of Early Bronze Age expansions differs from that of Europe. Intriguingly, we find that direct descendants of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers of Central Asia, now extinct as a separate lineage, survived well into the Bronze Age. These groups likely engaged in early horse domestication as a prey-route transition from hunting to herding, as otherwise seen for reindeer. Our findings further suggest that West Eurasian ancestry entered South Asia before and after, rather than during, the initial expansion of western steppe pastoralists, with the later event consistent with a Late Bronze Age entry of IE languages into South Asia. Finally, the lack of steppe ancestry in samples from Anatolia indicates that the spread of the earliest branch of IE languages into that region was not associated with a major population migration from the steppe.Model-based admixture proportions for selected ancient and present-day individuals, assuming K = 6, shown with their corresponding geographical locations.Ancient groups are represented by larger admixture plots, with those sequenced in the present work surrounded by black borders and others used for providing context with blue borders. Present-day South Asian groups are represented by smaller admixture plots with dark red borders.The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyzed 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after, but not at the time of, Yamnaya culture. We find no evidence of steppe ancestry in Bronze Age Anatolia from when Indo-European languages are attested there. Thus, in contrast to Europe, Early Bronze Age Yamnaya-related migrations had limited direct genetic impact in Asia.",
author = "Damgaard, {Peter de Barros} and Rui Martiniano and Jack Kamm and {Moreno Mayar}, {Jos{\'e} V{\'i}ctor} and Guus Kroonen and Micha{\"e}l Peyrot and Gojko Barjamovic and Simon Rasmussen and Zacho, {Claus Gr{\o}nlund} and Nurbol Baimukhanov and Victor Zaibert and Victor Merz and Arjun Biddanda and Ilja Merz and Valeriy Loman and Valeriy Evdokimov and Emma Usmanova and Brian Hemphill and Andaine Seguin-Orlando and Yediay, {Fulya Eylem} and Inam Ullah and Karl-G{\"o}ran Sj{\"o}gren and Iversen, {Katrine H{\o}jholt} and Jeremy Choin and {de la Fuente Castro}, Constanza and Melissa Ilardo and Hannes Schroeder and Vyacheslav Moiseyev and Andrey Gromov and Andrei Polyakov and Sachihiro Omura and Senyurt, {S{\"u}leyman Y{\"u}cel} and Orlando, {Ludovic Antoine Alexandre} and Habib Ahmad and Catriona McKenzie and Ashot Margaryan and Abdul Hameed and Abdul Samad and Nazish Gul and Khokhar, {Muhammad Hassan} and Goriunova, {O. I.} and Bazaliiskii, {Vladimir I.} and John Novembre and Weber, {Andrzej W.} and Allentoft, {Morten Erik} and Rasmus Nielsen and Kristian Kristiansen and Martin Sikora and Outram, {Alan K.} and Richard Durbin and Eske Willerslev",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1126/science.aar7711",
language = "English",
volume = "360",
journal = "Science",
issn = "0036-8075",
publisher = "American Association for the Advancement of Science",
number = "6396",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia

AU - Damgaard, Peter de Barros

AU - Martiniano, Rui

AU - Kamm, Jack

AU - Moreno Mayar, José Víctor

AU - Kroonen, Guus

AU - Peyrot, Michaël

AU - Barjamovic, Gojko

AU - Rasmussen, Simon

AU - Zacho, Claus Grønlund

AU - Baimukhanov, Nurbol

AU - Zaibert, Victor

AU - Merz, Victor

AU - Biddanda, Arjun

AU - Merz, Ilja

AU - Loman, Valeriy

AU - Evdokimov, Valeriy

AU - Usmanova, Emma

AU - Hemphill, Brian

AU - Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

AU - Yediay, Fulya Eylem

AU - Ullah, Inam

AU - Sjögren, Karl-Göran

AU - Iversen, Katrine Højholt

AU - Choin, Jeremy

AU - de la Fuente Castro, Constanza

AU - Ilardo, Melissa

AU - Schroeder, Hannes

AU - Moiseyev, Vyacheslav

AU - Gromov, Andrey

AU - Polyakov, Andrei

AU - Omura, Sachihiro

AU - Senyurt, Süleyman Yücel

AU - Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

AU - Ahmad, Habib

AU - McKenzie, Catriona

AU - Margaryan, Ashot

AU - Hameed, Abdul

AU - Samad, Abdul

AU - Gul, Nazish

AU - Khokhar, Muhammad Hassan

AU - Goriunova, O. I.

AU - Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.

AU - Novembre, John

AU - Weber, Andrzej W.

AU - Allentoft, Morten Erik

AU - Nielsen, Rasmus

AU - Kristiansen, Kristian

AU - Sikora, Martin

AU - Outram, Alan K.

AU - Durbin, Richard

AU - Willerslev, Eske

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The Eurasian steppes reach from the Ukraine in Europe to Mongolia and China. Over the past 5000 years, these flat grasslands were thought to be the route for the ebb and flow of migrant humans, their horses, and their languages. de Barros Damgaard et al. probed whole-genome sequences from the remains of 74 individuals found across this region. Although there is evidence for migration into Europe from the steppes, the details of human movements are complex and involve independent acquisitions of horse cultures. Furthermore, it appears that the Indo-European Hittite language derived from Anatolia, not the steppes. The steppe people seem not to have penetrated South Asia. Genetic evidence indicates an independent history involving western Eurasian admixture into ancient South Asian peoples.Science, this issue p. eaar7711INTRODUCTIONAccording to the commonly accepted “steppe hypothesis,” the initial spread of Indo-European (IE) languages into both Europe and Asia took place with migrations of Early Bronze Age Yamnaya pastoralists from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. This is believed to have been enabled by horse domestication, which revolutionized transport and warfare. Although in Europe there is much support for the steppe hypothesis, the impact of Early Bronze Age Western steppe pastoralists in Asia, including Anatolia and South Asia, remains less well understood, with limited archaeological evidence for their presence. Furthermore, the earliest secure evidence of horse husbandry comes from the Botai culture of Central Asia, whereas direct evidence for Yamnaya equestrianism remains elusive.RATIONALEWe investigated the genetic impact of Early Bronze Age migrations into Asia and interpret our findings in relation to the steppe hypothesis and early spread of IE languages. We generated whole-genome shotgun sequence data (~1 to 25 X average coverage) for 74 ancient individuals from Inner Asia and Anatolia, as well as 41 high-coverage present-day genomes from 17 Central Asian ethnicities.RESULTSWe show that the population at Botai associated with the earliest evidence for horse husbandry derived from an ancient hunter-gatherer ancestry previously seen in the Upper Paleolithic Mal’ta (MA1) and was deeply diverged from the Western steppe pastoralists. They form part of a previously undescribed west-to-east cline of Holocene prehistoric steppe genetic ancestry in which Botai, Central Asians, and Baikal groups can be modeled with different amounts of Eastern hunter-gatherer (EHG) and Ancient East Asian genetic ancestry represented by Baikal_EN.In Anatolia, Bronze Age samples, including from Hittite speaking settlements associated with the first written evidence of IE languages, show genetic continuity with preceding Anatolian Copper Age (CA) samples and have substantial Caucasian hunter-gatherer (CHG)–related ancestry but no evidence of direct steppe admixture.In South Asia, we identified at least two distinct waves of admixture from the west, the first occurring from a source related to the Copper Age Namazga farming culture from the southern edge of the steppe, who exhibit both the Iranian and the EHG components found in many contemporary Pakistani and Indian groups from across the subcontinent. The second came from Late Bronze Age steppe sources, with a genetic impact that is more localized in the north and west.CONCLUSIONOur findings reveal that the early spread of Yamnaya Bronze Age pastoralists had limited genetic impact in Anatolia as well as Central and South Asia. As such, the Asian story of Early Bronze Age expansions differs from that of Europe. Intriguingly, we find that direct descendants of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers of Central Asia, now extinct as a separate lineage, survived well into the Bronze Age. These groups likely engaged in early horse domestication as a prey-route transition from hunting to herding, as otherwise seen for reindeer. Our findings further suggest that West Eurasian ancestry entered South Asia before and after, rather than during, the initial expansion of western steppe pastoralists, with the later event consistent with a Late Bronze Age entry of IE languages into South Asia. Finally, the lack of steppe ancestry in samples from Anatolia indicates that the spread of the earliest branch of IE languages into that region was not associated with a major population migration from the steppe.Model-based admixture proportions for selected ancient and present-day individuals, assuming K = 6, shown with their corresponding geographical locations.Ancient groups are represented by larger admixture plots, with those sequenced in the present work surrounded by black borders and others used for providing context with blue borders. Present-day South Asian groups are represented by smaller admixture plots with dark red borders.The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyzed 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after, but not at the time of, Yamnaya culture. We find no evidence of steppe ancestry in Bronze Age Anatolia from when Indo-European languages are attested there. Thus, in contrast to Europe, Early Bronze Age Yamnaya-related migrations had limited direct genetic impact in Asia.

AB - The Eurasian steppes reach from the Ukraine in Europe to Mongolia and China. Over the past 5000 years, these flat grasslands were thought to be the route for the ebb and flow of migrant humans, their horses, and their languages. de Barros Damgaard et al. probed whole-genome sequences from the remains of 74 individuals found across this region. Although there is evidence for migration into Europe from the steppes, the details of human movements are complex and involve independent acquisitions of horse cultures. Furthermore, it appears that the Indo-European Hittite language derived from Anatolia, not the steppes. The steppe people seem not to have penetrated South Asia. Genetic evidence indicates an independent history involving western Eurasian admixture into ancient South Asian peoples.Science, this issue p. eaar7711INTRODUCTIONAccording to the commonly accepted “steppe hypothesis,” the initial spread of Indo-European (IE) languages into both Europe and Asia took place with migrations of Early Bronze Age Yamnaya pastoralists from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. This is believed to have been enabled by horse domestication, which revolutionized transport and warfare. Although in Europe there is much support for the steppe hypothesis, the impact of Early Bronze Age Western steppe pastoralists in Asia, including Anatolia and South Asia, remains less well understood, with limited archaeological evidence for their presence. Furthermore, the earliest secure evidence of horse husbandry comes from the Botai culture of Central Asia, whereas direct evidence for Yamnaya equestrianism remains elusive.RATIONALEWe investigated the genetic impact of Early Bronze Age migrations into Asia and interpret our findings in relation to the steppe hypothesis and early spread of IE languages. We generated whole-genome shotgun sequence data (~1 to 25 X average coverage) for 74 ancient individuals from Inner Asia and Anatolia, as well as 41 high-coverage present-day genomes from 17 Central Asian ethnicities.RESULTSWe show that the population at Botai associated with the earliest evidence for horse husbandry derived from an ancient hunter-gatherer ancestry previously seen in the Upper Paleolithic Mal’ta (MA1) and was deeply diverged from the Western steppe pastoralists. They form part of a previously undescribed west-to-east cline of Holocene prehistoric steppe genetic ancestry in which Botai, Central Asians, and Baikal groups can be modeled with different amounts of Eastern hunter-gatherer (EHG) and Ancient East Asian genetic ancestry represented by Baikal_EN.In Anatolia, Bronze Age samples, including from Hittite speaking settlements associated with the first written evidence of IE languages, show genetic continuity with preceding Anatolian Copper Age (CA) samples and have substantial Caucasian hunter-gatherer (CHG)–related ancestry but no evidence of direct steppe admixture.In South Asia, we identified at least two distinct waves of admixture from the west, the first occurring from a source related to the Copper Age Namazga farming culture from the southern edge of the steppe, who exhibit both the Iranian and the EHG components found in many contemporary Pakistani and Indian groups from across the subcontinent. The second came from Late Bronze Age steppe sources, with a genetic impact that is more localized in the north and west.CONCLUSIONOur findings reveal that the early spread of Yamnaya Bronze Age pastoralists had limited genetic impact in Anatolia as well as Central and South Asia. As such, the Asian story of Early Bronze Age expansions differs from that of Europe. Intriguingly, we find that direct descendants of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers of Central Asia, now extinct as a separate lineage, survived well into the Bronze Age. These groups likely engaged in early horse domestication as a prey-route transition from hunting to herding, as otherwise seen for reindeer. Our findings further suggest that West Eurasian ancestry entered South Asia before and after, rather than during, the initial expansion of western steppe pastoralists, with the later event consistent with a Late Bronze Age entry of IE languages into South Asia. Finally, the lack of steppe ancestry in samples from Anatolia indicates that the spread of the earliest branch of IE languages into that region was not associated with a major population migration from the steppe.Model-based admixture proportions for selected ancient and present-day individuals, assuming K = 6, shown with their corresponding geographical locations.Ancient groups are represented by larger admixture plots, with those sequenced in the present work surrounded by black borders and others used for providing context with blue borders. Present-day South Asian groups are represented by smaller admixture plots with dark red borders.The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyzed 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after, but not at the time of, Yamnaya culture. We find no evidence of steppe ancestry in Bronze Age Anatolia from when Indo-European languages are attested there. Thus, in contrast to Europe, Early Bronze Age Yamnaya-related migrations had limited direct genetic impact in Asia.

U2 - 10.1126/science.aar7711

DO - 10.1126/science.aar7711

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 29743352

VL - 360

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 6396

M1 - 1422

ER -

ID: 198789064