Role of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and other inflammatory mediators in the induction of macrophage extracellular trap formation

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The infiltration of activated leukocytes, including macrophages, at sites of inflammation and the formation and presence of hypochlorous acid (ZHOCl) are interlinked hallmarks of many debilitating disease processes, including atherosclerosis, arthritis, neurological and renal disease, diabetes and obesity. The production of extracellular traps by activated leukocytes in response to a range of inflammatory stimuli is increasingly recognised as an important process within a range of disease settings. We show that exposure of human monocyte-derived macrophages to pathophysiological levels of HOCl results in the dose-dependent extrusion of DNA and histones into the cellular supernatant, consistent with extracellular trap formation. Concurrent with, but independent of these findings, macrophage exposure to HOCl also resulted in an immediate and sustained cytosolic accumulation of Ca2+, culminating in the increased production of cytokines and chemokines. Polarisation of the macrophages prior to HOCl exposure revealed a greater propensity for inflammatory M1 macrophages to produce extracellular traps, whereas alternatively-activated M2 macrophages were less susceptible to HOCl insult. M1 macrophages also produced extracellular traps on exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (ZPMA), interleukin-8 (ZIL-8) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (ZTNF alpha). Taken together, these data indicate a potential role for macrophages in mediating extracellular trap formation, which may be relevant in pathological conditions characterised by chronic inflammation or excessive HOCl formation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Pages (from-to)25-34
Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Research areas

  • Macrophage, Myeloperoxidase, Inflammation, Extracellular trap, Peptidylarginine deiminase, DNA

ID: 209540869