ROAR-A: re-optimization based Online Adaptive Radiotherapy of anal cancer, a prospective phase II trial protocol

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  • Katrine Smedegaard Storm
  • Lina M. Åström
  • Patrik Sibolt
  • Claus P. Behrens
  • Persson, Gitte
  • Eva Serup-Hansen

Background: Chemo-radiotherapy with curative intent for anal cancer has high complete remission rates, but acute treatment-related gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is significant. Toxicity occurs due to irradiation of surrounding normal tissue. Current radiotherapy requires the addition of large planning margins to the radiation field to ensure target coverage regardless of the considerable organ motion in the pelvic region. This increases the irradiated volume and radiation dose to the surrounding normal tissue and thereby toxicity. Online adaptive radiotherapy uses artificial intelligence to adjust the treatment to the anatomy of the day. This allows for the reduction of planning margins, minimizing the irradiated volume and thereby radiation to the surrounding normal tissue.This study examines if cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided oART with daily automated treatment re-planning can reduce acute gastrointestinal toxicity in patients with anal cancer. Methods/design: The study is a prospective, single-arm, phase II trial conducted at Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev and Gentofte, Denmark. 205 patients with local only or locally advanced anal cancer, referred for radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy with curative intent, are planned for inclusion. Toxicity and quality of life are reported with Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events and patient-reported outcome questionnaires, before, during, and after treatment. The primary endpoint is a reduction in the incidence of acute treatment-related grade ≥ 2 diarrhea from 36 to 25% after daily online adaptive radiotherapy compared to standard radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints include all acute and late toxicity, overall survival, and reduction in treatment interruptions. Results: Accrual began in January 2022 and is expected to finish in January 2026. Primary endpoint results are expected to be available in April 2026. Discussion: This is the first study utilizing online adaptive radiotherapy to treat anal cancer. We hope to determine whether there is a clinical benefit for the patients, with significant reductions in acute GI toxicity without compromising treatment efficacy. Trial registration: Identifier: NCT05438836. Danish Ethical Committee: H-21028093.

Original languageEnglish
Article number374
JournalBMC Cancer
Issue number1
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.

    Research areas

  • Anal cancer, Chemoradiotherapy, CT-guided adaptive radiotherapy, Daily adaptive radiotherapy, Online adaptive radiotherapy

ID: 387148495