Oxidation and inactivation of SERCA by selective reaction of cysteine residues with amino acid peroxides
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The oxidative modification of proteins plays an important role in a wide range of pathological processes and aging. Proteins are modified by numerous biologic oxidants including hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, and oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals. More recently, an additional class of physiologically important oxidants has been identified, peptide and protein peroxides. The latter react quite rapidly and selectively with protein cysteine residues. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) is reversibly regulated through NO-dependent S-glutathiolation of specific cysteine residues. The irreversible oxidation of these cysteine residues could, therefore, impair NO-dependent muscle relaxation. Here, we show that specific protein-derived (amino acid) peroxides react selectively with a subset of the 22 reduced cysteine residues of SERCA1, including a peptide-containing Cys674 and Cys675, where Cys674 (in SERCA2) represents one of the targets for NO-dependent S-glutathiolation. Out of 11 tested amino acid, peptide, and protein peroxides, those derived from free tryptophan and free tyrosine showed the highest reactivity towards SERCA, while no oxidation under similar experimental conditions was detected through hydrogen peroxide. Among the peroxides from tryptophan, those of free tryptophan showed a significantly higher reactivity as compared to those from N- and C-terminally blocked tryptophan. Quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that the highest reactivity of the tryptophan-derived peroxides was observed for Cys774 and Cys938, cysteine residues, which are embedded within the transmembrane domains of SERCA1. This unusual reactivity of transmembrane domains cannot be solely rationalized by the hydrophobicity of the oxidant, as the peroxide from dl-tryptophan shows considerable higher reactivity as compared to the one derived from N-acetyl-tryptophan methyl ester. Our data demonstrate a potential role of peptide- and protein-derived peroxides as important mediators of oxidative stress in vivo, which may cause a selective oxidation of Cys residues leading to inactivation of membrane proteins.
|Journal||Chemical Research in Toxicology|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2007|
- Amino Acids, Animals, Chimera, Cysteine, Enzyme Inhibitors, Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions, Oxidants, Oxidation-Reduction, Peroxides, Photochemistry, Photolysis, Rats, Rats, Inbred BN, Rats, Inbred F344, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases