Non-invasive assessment of left ventricular relaxation property using color M-mode-derived intraventricular pressure gradients in cats

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Diastolic dysfunction is an early clinical feature of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The left ventricular filling in early diastole is facilitated by the diastolic intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG). The study objectives were to evaluate color Doppler M-mode-derived IVPG calculation in cats as a non-invasive assessment of the left ventricular relaxation property to determine the normal ranges of peak IVPG in cats and investigate the influence of left ventricular function and heart rate (HR).

106 client-owned apparently healthy cats.

Prospective cross-sectional study. Quantitative analysis of color Doppler M-mode images was used to estimate total and segmental IVPGs non-invasively.

The total IVPG was 0.76 mmHg (95% reference interval (RI): 0.28–1.29 mmHg), the basal IVPG 0.34 mmHg (95% RI: 0.07–0.63 mmHg), and the mid-apical IVPG 0.42 mmHg (95% RI: 0.15–0.71 mmHg). Total and segmental IVPG increased with HR (P < 0.003), while segmental percent IVPG was HR independent. A short isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and a high mitral annular velocity in early diastole were associated with an increase in total IVPG (P = 0.008 and P = 0.009, respectively) adjusted for HR. An increase in IVPG was associated with an increase in mitral inflow velocity (P < 0.001).

Feline IVPGs increase with HR and a short IVRT, which was believed to be a normal physiologic adrenergic response associated with an increased sympathetic tone. Future studies of segmental IVPG changes in feline HCM are needed to evaluate the clinical applicability of color Doppler M-mode estimated IVPGs in feline cardiology.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Veterinary Cardiology
Pages (from-to)236-248
Publication statusPublished - 2022

ID: 305181551