Detrimental Actions of Chlorinated Nucleosides on the Function and Viability of Insulin-Producing Cells

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Neutrophils are innate immune cells that play a key role in pathogen clearance. They contribute to inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and extracellular traps (NETs). NETs contain a DNA backbone and catalytically active myeloperoxidase (MPO), which produces hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Chlorination of the DNA nucleoside 8-chloro-deoxyguanosine has been reported as an early marker of inflammation in diabetes. In this study, we examined the reactivity of different chlorinated nucleosides, including 5-chloro-(deoxy)cytidine (5ClC, 5CldC), 8-chloro-(deoxy)adenosine (8ClA, 8CldA) and 8-chloro-(deoxy)guanosine (8ClG, 8CldG), with the INS-1E β-cell line. Exposure of INS-1E cells to 5CldC, 8CldA, 8ClA, and 8CldG decreased metabolic activity and intracellular ATP, and, together with 8ClG, induced apoptotic cell death. Exposure to 8ClA, but not the other nucleosides, resulted in sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress, activation of the unfolded protein response, and increased expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Exposure of INS-1E cells to 5CldC also increased TXNIP and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1) expression. In addition, a significant increase in the mRNA expression of NQO1 and GPx4 was seen in INS-1E cells exposed to 8ClG and 8CldA, respectively. However, a significant decrease in intracellular thiols was only observed in INS-1E cells exposed to 8ClG and 8CldG. Finally, a significant decrease in the insulin stimulation index was observed in experiments with all the chlorinated nucleosides, except for 8ClA and 8ClG. Together, these results suggest that increased formation of chlorinated nucleosides during inflammation in diabetes could influence β-cell function and may contribute to disease progression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14585
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number19
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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© 2023 by the authors.

    Research areas

  • chlorinated nucleosides, diabetes, hypochlorous acid, inflammation, myeloperoxidase

ID: 371277041