Characterization of Influenza D Virus in Danish Calves

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Influenza D virus (IDV) was first described in 2011 and has been found to mainly circulate among cattle and swine populations worldwide. Nasal swab samples were collected from 100 Danish calf herds (83 dairy and 17 veal herds) from 2018–2020. Influenza D virus was detected in 12 of the herds. Samples with the lowest cycle quantification value were selected for full genome sequencing. A hemagglutinin-esterase fusion (HEF) gene sequence from a Danish IDV collected in 2015 was also included in this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from seven of the IDV-positive herds belonged to the D/OK lineage and clustered together in the HEF tree with the IDV collected in 2015. Viruses from the four other herds belonged to the D/660 lineage, where three of the viruses clustered closely together, while the fourth virus was more phylogenetically distant in all gene segments. The high level of genetic similarity between viruses from two different herds involved in calf trading suggests that transmission occurred through the movement of calves. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to describe the characterization of IDV in calves in Denmark.

Original languageEnglish
Article number423
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Research areas

  • Bovine, Calves, Denmark, Influenza D virus, PCR, Phylogeny, Sequencing

ID: 307375988