Hypoglycaemia and rebound hyperglycaemia increase left ventricular systolic function in patients with type 1 diabetes

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AIM: To investigate echocardiographic changes during acute hypoglycaemia followed by recovery to hyperglycaemia or euglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized crossover study, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes took part in two experimental study days, consisting of a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic phase (5.0-8.0 mmol/L) for 45 minutes followed by a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycaemic phase (2.5 mmol/L) for 60 minutes, and a recovery phase in either hyperglycaemia (20 mmol/L) or euglycaemia (5.0-8.0 mmol/L) for 60 minutes. Cardiac function was evaluated with echocardiography during each phase.

RESULTS: Acute hypoglycaemia increased all markers of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, including LV ejection fraction (LVEF), global longitudinal strain (GLS), GLS rate and peak systolic velocity of mitral annular longitudinal movement (s'; P < 0.001 for all). During the recovery phases, all markers of LV systolic function were increased during hyperglycaemia (P < 0.01 for all), and LVEF and GLS remained increased during euglycaemia (P = 0.0116 and P = 0.0092, respectively). The increment in LVEF during the recovery phase was greater during hyperglycaemia than euglycaemia (P = 0.0046).

CONCLUSIONS: Hypoglycaemia, recent hypoglycaemia, and overcorrection of hypoglycaemia to rebound hyperglycaemia increased LV systolic function in type 1 diabetes and may imply consideration of plasma glucose when evaluating LV function in patients with type 1 diabetes. An increase in LV systolic function may cause increased strain on the heart and partly explain the link between hypoglycaemia, high glycaemic variability and cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)2027-2037
Publication statusPublished - 2022

ID: 315266936