Human Xip1 (C2orf13) is a novel regulator of cellular responses to DNA strand breaks
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DNA strand breaks arise continuously as the result of intracellular metabolism and in response to a multitude of genotoxic agents. To overcome such challenges to genomic stability, cells have evolved genome surveillance pathways that detect and repair damaged DNA in a coordinated fashion. Here we identify the previously uncharacterized human protein Xip1 (C2orf13) as a novel component of the checkpoint response to DNA strand breaks. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Xip1 was rapidly recruited to sites of DNA breaks, and this accumulation was dependent on a novel type of zinc finger motif located in the C terminus of Xip1. The initial recruitment kinetics of Xip1 closely paralleled that of XRCC1, a central organizer of single strand break (SSB) repair, and its accumulation was both delayed and sustained when the detection of SSBs was abrogated by inhibition of PARP-1. Xip1 and XRCC1 stably interacted through recognition of CK2 phosphorylation sites in XRCC1 by the Forkhead-associated (FHA) domain of Xip1, and XRCC1 was required to maintain steady-state levels of Xip1. Moreover, Xip1 was phosphorylated on Ser-116 by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated in response to ionizing radiation, further underscoring the potential importance of Xip1 in the DNA damage response. Finally, depletion of Xip1 significantly decreased the clonogenic survival of cells exposed to DNA SSB- or double strand break-inducing agents. Collectively, these findings implicate Xip1 as a new regulator of genome maintenance pathways, which may function to organize DNA strand break repair complexes at sites of DNA damage.
|Journal of Biological Chemistry
|Number of pages
|Published - 6 Jul 2007
- Cell Cycle Proteins, Cell Line, Tumor, DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded, DNA Breaks, Single-Stranded, DNA Repair, DNA-Binding Proteins, Genomic Instability, Humans, Phosphoproteins, Phosphorylation, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Zinc Fingers