Cheddar cheese ripening affects plasma nonesterified fatty acids and serum insulin concentrations in growing pigs
Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate by means of a porcine model how cheeses with different ripening times affect blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations and fecal-fat excretion.
METHODS: A parallel-arm randomized intervention study with 36 Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred 3-mo-old female pigs was conducted. The pigs were fed a 21-d butter-rich run-in diet (143 g of butter/kg diet), followed by a 14-d intervention with 1 of 3 isocaloric diets: 4-mo ripened cheddar (4-MRC) diet, 14-mo ripened cheddar (14-MRC) diet, or 24-mo ripened cheddar (24-MRC) diet (350 g of cheese/kg diet). Serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin, plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose, fecal-fat excretion, and body weight were measured.
RESULTS: Plasma NEFA was lower in the 24-MRC (201 ± 26 μEq/L) and in the 14-MRC (171 ± 19 μEq/L) diet groups than in the 4-MRC diet group (260 ± 27 μEq/L; P = 0.044 and P = 0.001). Serum insulin was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (1.04 ± 0.09 mmol/L) than in the 4-MRC diet group (1.44 ± 0.14 mmol/L; P = 0.002), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC diet group (1.25 ± 0.11 mmol/L). Likewise, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower in the 24-MRC diet group (0.030 ± 0.003) than in the 4-MRC diet group (0.041 ± 0.005; P < 0.01), but intermediate and not different from either in the 14-MRC group (0.036 ± 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: Intake of long-term ripened cheddar improved indicators of insulin sensitivity in growing pigs compared with short-term ripened cheddar. This may also be important for human health.
|Journal||Journal of Nutrition|
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|