Carbon leakage in a small open economy: The importance of international climate policies

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


A substantial literature investigates carbon leakage effects for large countries and climate coalitions. However,
little is known about leakage effects for a small open economy within a climate coalition. To fill this gap in
the literature, we incorporate international climate policies relevant for a small open EU economy into the
general equilibrium model GTAP-E. We focus our analysis on Denmark, but we show that our framework can
be applied to any EU economy. We find substantial leakage associated with an economy-wide CO2e tax. This
result is strongly affected by EU climate policies. We also present sector-specific leakage rates and find large
sectoral differences.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106447
JournalEnergy Economics
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Number of downloads are based on statistics from Google Scholar and

No data available

ID: 327772839