Impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic profile in Danish children and adolescents with normal weight, overweight, or obesity
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OBJECTIVE: Whether the definitions of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) differentially impact estimates of the metabolic profile and IFG-related comorbidities in Danish children and adolescents is unknown.
METHODS: Two thousand one hundred and fifty four (979 boys) children and adolescents with overweight or obesity (median age 12 years) and 1824 (728 boys) children with normal weight (median age 12 years) from The Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank were studied. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, puberty, and fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipids were measured.
RESULTS: About 14.1% of participants with overweight or obesity exhibited IFG according to the ADA and 3.5% according to the WHO definition. Among individuals with normal weight, the corresponding prevalences were 4.3% and 0.3%. IFG was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure, higher concentrations of HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide (P < .0001) and triglycerides (P = .03), and lower HOMA2-IS and HOMA2-B (P < .0001) independent of sex, age, puberty, waist-to-height ratio, and degree of obesity. Furthermore, IFG was associated with a higher risk for hypertension (OR = 1.66 [95%CI: 1.21; 2.28], P = .002) and dyslipidemia (OR = 1.90 [95%CI: 1.38; 2.56], P < .0001) compared with the group without IFG independent of age, sex, and puberty.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IFG, when applying the ADA criterion compared with the WHO criterion, was 4 times higher in individuals with overweight and obesity and 14 times higher in individuals with normal weight in this study sample of children and adolescents. IFG was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and dyslipidemia compared with their normoglycemic peers regardless of the definition applied.
|Publication status||Published - May 2018|