Winter cholecalciferol supplementation at 55°N has no effect on markers of cardiometabolic risk in healthy children aged 4-8 years

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Hanne Hauger, Christian Mølgaard, Charlotte Mortensen, Christian Ritz, Hanne Frøkiær, Taryn J Smith, Kathryn Hart, Susan A Lanham-New, Camilla Trab Damsgaard

Background: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles in many observational studies in children, but very few randomized controlled trials have investigated this.

Objective: We explored the effect of winter-time cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on cardiometabolic risk markers in young, white, 4- to 8-y-old healthy Danish children (55°N) as part of the pan-European ODIN project.

Methods: In the ODIN Junior double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial, 119 children (mean ± SD age: 6.7 ± 1.5 y; 36% male; 82% normal weight) were randomly allocated to 0, 10 or 20 µg/d of vitamin D3 for 20 wk (October-March). Cardiometabolic risk markers including BMI-for-age z score (BMIz), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum triglycerides and cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL, and total:HDL), plasma glucose and insulin, and whole-blood glycated hemoglobin were measured at baseline and endpoint as secondary outcomes together with serum 25(OH)D. Intervention effects were evaluated in linear regression models as between-group differences at endpoint adjusted for baseline value of the outcome, and additionally for age, sex, baseline serum 25(OH)D, BMIz, time since breakfast, and breakfast content.

Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D was 56.7 ± 12.3 nmol/L at baseline and differed between groups at endpoint with concentrations of 31.1 ± 7.5, 61.8 ± 10.6, and 75.8 ± 11.5 nmol/L in the 0-, 10-, and 20 µg/d groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on any of the cardiometabolic risk markers in analyses adjusted for baseline value of the outcome (all P ≥ 0.05), and additional covariate adjustment did not change the results notably.

Conclusions: Preventing the winter decline in serum 25(OH)D with daily vitamin D3 supplementation of 10 or 20 µg had no cardiometabolic effects in healthy 4- to 8-y-old Danish children. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02145195.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume148
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)1261-1268
Number of pages8
ISSN0022-3166
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Research areas

  • The Faculty of Science - Randomized controlled trial, Vitamin D, Cardiovascular risk factors, Children, ODIN

ID: 198226253