The prevalence of congenital malformations is still higher in pregnant women with pregestational diabetes despite near-normal HbA1c: a literature review

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Nina Bonne Eriksen, Peter Damm, Elisabeth R. Mathiesen, Lene Ringholm

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We assessed the association between congenital malformations and maternal hyperglycemia in pregnant women with pregestational (type 1 or type 2) diabetes and investigated if the rate of congenital malformations was similar in women with near-normal glycemic control compared to the background population. We also assessed the association between congenital malformations and maternal hyperglycemia in pregnant women with pregestational diabetes with special focus on women with near-normal HbA1c in early pregnancy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a literature review based on an electronic literature search of the databases PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Web of Science conducted in July 2017 using the search terms diabetes, pregnancy, HbA1c or glycemic control and congenital anomaly or congenital anomaly. We included original papers in English published after 1997 with data on congenital malformations and HbA1c in at least 250 women with pregestational diabetes.

RESULTS: Nine papers with in total 6225 women with type 1 diabetes and 2334 women with type 2 diabetes were included. The prevalence of congenital malformations was 6.4% in women with type 1 diabetes and 4.3% in women with type 2 diabetes and for the combined group of women with pregestational diabetes, the relative risk compared to the background population was 3.2. In women with HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) in early pregnancy or HbA1c 53-64 mmol/mol (7.0-8.0%) the prevalence of congenital malformations was 4.3 and 3.7%, respectively, with a relative risk of 2.2 and 1.9, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with pregestational diabetes the prevalence of congenital abnormalities was threefold higher in women with pregestational diabetes compared to the background population. However, HbA1c below 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) in early pregnancy was also associated with a two times increased risk of congenital malformations compared to the background population.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
ISSN1476-7058
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2019

    Research areas

  • Congenital malformations, HbA1c, pregestational diabetes, pregnancy

ID: 188151239