The influence of maternal obesity and breastfeeding on infant appetite- and growth-related hormone concentrations: The SKOT Cohort Studies

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Anni Larnkjær, Ken K Ong, Emma M Carlsen, Katrine Tschentscher Ejlerskov, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F. Michaelsen

Background/Aims: Exposure to obesity during pregnancy may lead to adverse changes in the offspring's metabolic profile. We compared appetite- and growth-related hormones in a cohort of infants born to obese mothers (SKOT-II) with infants born mainly to nonobese mothers (SKOT-I).

Methods: Infants from SKOT-I (n = 273) and SKOT-II (n = 132) were examined including anthropometric measurements and blood samples analyzed for glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), adiponectin, and leptin. Information on breastfeeding and parental characteristics were also collected.

Results: At 9 months of age, SKOT-II infants were 3.6% heavier and 1.2% longer than SKOT-I infants even though their mothers were shorter. There was no difference in body mass index (BMI). SKOT-II infants had higher levels of insulin, adiponectin, and leptin but lower levels of IGF-I compared to SKOT-I infants (all p ≤ 0.015). These differences remained, except for leptin, when adjusted for current weight. Breastfeeding versus nonbreastfeeding at 9 months was associated with lower concentrations of all hormones (all p ≤ 0.003). In adjusted models, maternal BMI at 9 months was positively associated with insulin and adiponectin and negatively with IGF-I.

Conclusions: Pre-pregnancy obesity confers symmetrically larger infant body size and higher levels of most growth- and appetite-related hormones but surprisingly lower levels of IGF-I, suggesting other possible infant growth-promoting effects through insulin.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHormone Research in Paediatrics
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)28-38
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2018

ID: 200340574