Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and nanoemulsion for enhancing aqueous miscibility of Alpinia galanga oil

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Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Surachai Pikulkaew, Anette Müllertz, Thomas Rades, Siriporn Okonogi

Alpinia galanga oil (AGO) possesses various activities but low aqueous solubility limits its application particularly in aquatic animals. AGO has powerful activity on fish anesthesia. Ethanol used for enhancing water miscible of AGO always shows severe side effects on fish. The present study explores the development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) and nanoemulsions (NE) to deliver AGO for fish anesthesia with less or no alcohol. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the best SMEDDS-AGO formulation, whereas NE-AGO were developed by means of high-energy emulsification. The mean droplet size of the best SMEDDS-AGO was 82 ± 0.5 nm whereas that of NE-AGO was 48 ± 1.6 nm. The anesthetic effect of the developed SMEDDS-AGO and NE-AGO in koi (Cyprinus carpio) was evaluated and compared with AGO ethanolic solution (EtOH-AGO). It was found that the time of induction the fish to reach the surgical stage of anesthesia was dose dependent. NE-AGO showed significantly higher activity than SMEDDS-AGO and EtOH-AGO, respectively. EtOH-AGO caused unwanted hyperactivity in the fish. This side effect did not occur in the fish anesthetized with SMEDDS-AGO and NE-AGO. In conclusion, SMEDDS and NE are promising delivery systems for AGO.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0188848
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume12
Issue number11
Number of pages18
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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