Restraining the multidrug efflux transporter STY4874 of Salmonella Typhi by reserpine and plant extracts
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Efflux-mediated multidrug resistance is a well-known phenomenon facilitated by multidrug resistant (MDR) transporters. One of the approaches to counteract efflux-mediated resistance is the use of MDR pump inhibitors, and thus be used in combination with the conventional antibiotics to treat deadly diseases like typhoid fever. We have previously reported that STY4874, an efflux transporter of Salmonella serotype Typhi, exhibited promising characteristics as MDR pump. In this study, we aimed to get an insight into possible STY4874 inhibitors of plant origin. STY4874 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and extracts from pomegranate peel, milk thistle seeds and reserpine, a synthetic plant alkaloid, were screened for inhibition of ciprofloxacin efflux. The extracts of milk thistle seeds and reserpine when incubated with ciprofloxacin showed statistically significant STY4874-mediated inhibitory activity, rendering the efflux pump inactive and hence early growth inhibition of host cells compared with cells expressing efflux pump and incubated only with ciprofloxacin. This efflux pump inhibitory activity was further confirmed by time-kill experiments. This study is the first to report on efflux pump inhibition of S. Typhi STY4874 and results can be extended towards its close homologues such as MdfA and MdtM from E. coli. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Understanding and combating resistance governed by multidrug efflux transporters is an ongoing research intensive area, affecting treatment of various nosocomial and endemic/epidemic infections. Confronting drug resistance requires that inhibitors debilitating the underlying mechanisms should be included in combination therapy. One such example is the prescription of clavulanic acid as combination therapy with amoxicillin, collectively called as co-amoxiclav to combat β-lactamase-mediated resistance. However, research related to finding the inhibitors of efflux transporters, the resistance mechanism distinct from β-lactamase mediated resistance is at an early stage. The current study finds that plant-derived inhibitors can be an option towards restraining efflux-mediated resistance.
|Journal||Letters in Applied Microbiology|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 3 Jul 2019|
© 2019 The Society for Applied Microbiology.