Reliability of rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosing pregnancy-associated malaria in north-eastern Tanzania

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Daniel T. Minja, Christentze Schmiegelow, Mayke Oesterholt, Pamela A. Magistrado, Stéphanie Boström, Davis John, Caroline Pehrson, Daniel Andersen, Philippe Deloron, Ali Salanti, Martha Lemnge, Adrian J. Luty, Michael Alifrangis, Thor Theander, John P. Lusingu

Background: Accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) are key aspects in averting adverse pregnancy outcomes. Microscopy is the gold standard in malaria diagnosis, but it has limited detection and availability. When used appropriately, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could be an ideal diagnostic complement to microscopy, due to their ease of use and adequate sensitivity in detecting even sub-microscopic infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is even more sensitive, but it is mainly used for research purposes. The accuracy and reliability of RDTs in diagnosing PAM was evaluated using microscopy and PCR. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women in north-eastern Tanzania was followed throughout pregnancy for detection of plasmodial infection using venous and placental blood samples evaluated by histidine rich protein 2 (HRP-2) and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) based RDTs (Parascreen™) or HRP-2 only (Paracheck Pf® and ParaHIT®f), microscopy and nested Plasmodium species diagnostic PCR. Results: From a cohort of 924 pregnant women who completed the follow up, complete RDT and microscopy data was available for 5,555 blood samples and of these 442 samples were analysed by PCR. Of the 5,555 blood samples, 49 ((proportion and 95% confidence interval) 0.9% [0.7 -1.1]) samples were positive by microscopy and 91 (1.6% [1.3-2.0]) by RDT. Forty-six (50.5% [40.5 - 60.6]) and 45 (49.5% [39.4-59.5]) of the RDT positive samples were positive and negative by microscopy, respectively, whereas nineteen (42.2% [29.0 - 56.7]) of the microscopy negative, but RDT positive, samples were positive by PCR. Three (0.05% [0.02 - 0.2]) samples were positive by microscopy but negative by RDT. 351 of the 5,461 samples negative by both RDT and microscopy were tested by PCR and found negative. There was no statistically significant difference between the performances of the different RDTs. Conclusions: Microscopy underestimated the real burden of malaria during pregnancy and RDTs performed better than microscopy in diagnosing PAM. In areas where intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy may be abandoned due to low and decreasing malaria risk and instead replaced with active case management, screening with RDT is likely to identify most infections in pregnant women and out-performs microscopy as a diagnostic tool.

Original languageEnglish
Article number211
JournalMalaria Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2012

    Research areas

  • Microscopy, Plasmodium falciparum, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Pregnancy outcomes, Pregnancy-Associated Malaria (PAM), Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), Reliability, Sensitivity, Sub-microscopic infections, Tanzania

ID: 138138684