Reduction of hepatic insulin clearance after oral glucose ingestion is not mediated by glucagon-like peptide 1 or gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans
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Juris J Meier, Jens Juul Holst, Wolfgang E Schmidt, Michael A Nauck
Changes in hepatic insulin clearance can occur after oral glucose or meal ingestion. This has been attributed to the secretion and action of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Given the recent availability of drugs based on incretin hormones, such clearance effects may be important for the future treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we determined insulin clearance in response to endogenously secreted and exogenously administered GIP and GLP-1. Insulin clearance was estimated from the molar C-peptide-to-insulin ratio calculated at basal conditions and from the respective areas under the curve after glucose, GIP, or GLP-1 administration. Oral glucose administration led to an approximately 60% reduction in the C-peptide-to-insulin ratio (P < 0.0001), whereas intravenous glucose administration had no effect (P = 0.09). The endogenous secretion of GIP or GLP-1 was unrelated to the changes in insulin clearance. The C-peptide-to-insulin ratio was unchanged after the intravenous administration of GIP or GLP-1 in the fasting state (P = 0.27 and P = 0.35, respectively). Likewise, infusing GLP-1 during a meal course did not alter insulin clearance (P = 0.87). An inverse nonlinear relationship was found between the C-peptide-to-insulin ratio and the integrated insulin levels after oral and during intravenous glucose administration. Insulin clearance is reduced by oral but not by intravenous glucose administration. Neither GIP nor GLP-1 has significant effects on insulin extraction. An inverse relationship between insulin concentrations and insulin clearance suggests that the secretion of insulin itself determines the rate of hepatic insulin clearance.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2007|
- Administration, Oral, Adolescent, Female, Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, Glucose, Humans, Injections, Intravenous, Insulin, Liver, Male, Metabolic Clearance Rate, Signal Transduction