Prior exposure to thymidine analogs and didanosine is associated with long-lasting alterations in adipose tissue distribution and cardiovascular risk factors

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Marco Gelpi, Shoaib Afzal, Andreas Fuchs, Jens Lundgren, Andreas D Knudsen, Ninna Drivsholm, Amanda Mocroft, Anne-Mette Lebech, Birgitte Lindegaard, Jørgen T. Kühl, Per E. Sigvardsen, Lars Køber, Børge G. Nordestgaard, Klaus F. Kofoed, Susanne D. Nielsen

BACKGROUND: Thymidine analogs and didanosine (ddI) have been associated with redistribution of body fat from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which, in turn, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We explored differences in adipose tissue distribution between people living with HIV (PLWH) with prior exposure to thymidine analogs and/or ddI, without exposure, and uninfected controls and the association with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

METHODS: In all, 761 PLWH from the Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV Infection study, and 2283 age and sex-matched uninfected controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included. PLWH were stratified according to prior exposure to thymidine analogs and/or ddI. VAT and SAT were determined by abdominal computed tomography scan. Hypotheses were tested using regression analyses.

RESULTS: Exposure to thymidine analogs and/or ddI was associated with 21.6 cm larger VAT (13.8-29.3) compared to HIV infection without exposure. HIV-negative status was associated with similar VAT compared to HIV infection without exposure. Cumulative exposure to thymidine analogs and/or ddI [3.7 cm per year (2.3-5.1)], but not time since discontinuation [-1.1 cm per year (-3.4 to 1.1)], was associated with VAT. Prior exposure to thymidine analogs and/or ddI was associated with excess risk of hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.62 (1.13-2.31)], hypercholesterolemia [aOR 1.49 (1.06-2.11)], and low high-density lipoprotein [aOR 1.40 (0.99-1.99)].

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potentially irreversible and harmful association of thymidine analogs and ddI with VAT accumulation, which appears be involved in the increased risk of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein found in PLWH with prior exposure to thymidine analogs and/or ddI, even years after treatment discontinuation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAIDS
Volume33
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)675-683
Number of pages9
ISSN0269-9370
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ID: 224600054