Pretreatment fasting glucose and insulin as determinants of weight loss on diets varying in macronutrients and dietary fibers - The POUNDS LOST Study

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterCommunication

Mads Fiil Hjorth, George A. Bray, Yishai Zohar, Lorien E Urban, Derek C Miketinas, Donald A Williamson, Donna H Ryan, Jennifer Rood, Catherine M Champagne, Frank M Sacks, Arne Astrup

Efforts to identify a preferable diet for weight management based on macronutrient composition have largely failed, but recent evidence suggests that satiety effects of carbohydrates may depend on the individual's insulin-mediated cellular glucose uptake. Therefore, using data from the POUNDS LOST trial, pre-treatment fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were studied as prognostic markers of long-term weight loss in four diets differing in carbohydrate, fat, and protein content, while assessing the role of dietary fiber intake. Subjects with FPG <100 mg/dL lost 2.6 (95% CI 0.9;4.4, p = 0.003) kg more on the low-fat/high-protein (n = 132) compared to the low-fat/average-protein diet (n = 136). Subjects with HOMA-IR ≥4 lost 3.6 (95% CI 0.2;7.1, p = 0.038) kg more body weight on the high-fat/high-protein (n = 35) compared to high-fat/average-protein diet (n = 33). Regardless of the randomized diet, subjects with prediabetes and FI below the median lost 5.6 kg (95% CI 0.6;10.6, p = 0.030) more when consuming ≥35 g (n = 15) compared to <35 g dietary fiber/10 MJ (n = 16). Overall, subjects with normal glycemia lost most on the low-fat/high-protein diet, subjects with high HOMA-IR lost most on the high-fat/high protein diet, and subjects with prediabetes and low FI had particular benefit from dietary fiber in the diet.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPersonalized Nutrition
EditorsGeorge Moschonis, Katherine Livingstone, Jessica Biesiekierski
Number of pages12
Place of PublicationBasel
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Publication date2019
Pages73-84
ISBN (Print)978-3-03921-445-7
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-03921-446-4
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

A printed edition of the special issue published online in the open access journal Nutrients (ISSN: 2072-6643) from 2018 to 2019.

    Research areas

  • The Faculty of Science - Glucose, Insulin, Weight, Diet, Mcronutrient composition, Clinical nutrition

Links

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