Population-based studies of relationships between dietary acidity load, insulin resistance and incident diabetes in Danes 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1103 Clinical Sciences

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Joachim Gæde, Trine Nielsen, Mia L Madsen, Ulla Toft, Torben Jørgensen, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Torben Hansen, Kristine H Allin, Oluf Pedersen

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the acidity of the diet may be related to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested if the acidity of the diet, measured as the Potential Renal Acid Load (PRAL) score, was associated with incident diabetes and diabetes-related intermediary traits.

METHODS: A total of 54,651 individuals from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort were included in the prospective cox regression analyses of incident diabetes over a 15 years follow-up period. Moreover, 5724 Danish individuals with baseline data from the Inter99 cohort were included in the cross sectional, multivariate and logistic regression analyses of measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucose tolerance status derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

RESULTS: In the DCH cohort a trend analysis showed that quintiles of PRAL score were, after multifactorial adjustment, associated with a higher incidence of diabetes (ptrend = 6 × 10- 7). HR for incident diabetes was 1.24 (1.14; 1.35) (p = 7 × 10- 7) between first and fifth PRAL score quintile. In Inter99 higher PRAL score associated with insulin resistance as estimated by lower BIGTT-Si (an OGTT-derived index of insulin sensitivity) (p = 4 × 10- 7) and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity (p = 2 × 10- 5) as well as higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.001). No association was observed for measures of insulin release, but higher PRAL score was associated with lower OGTT-based disposition index.

CONCLUSIONS: A high dietary acidity load is associated with a higher risk of diabetes among middle-aged Danes. Although adjustment for BMI attenuated the effect sizes the association remained significant. The increased risk of diabetes may be related to our finding that a high dietary acidity load associates with impaired insulin sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number91
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume17
Issue number1
ISSN1475-2891
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2018

ID: 209359177