Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Augments Glucagon Responses to Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

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Mikkel Christensen, Salvatore Calanna, Alexander H Sparre-Ulrich, Peter L Kristensen, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens Faber, Francesco Purrello, Gerrit van Hall, Jens Juul Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is glucagonotropic, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is glucagonostatic. We studied the effects of GIP and GLP-1 on glucagon responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Ten male subjects with T1DM (C-peptide negative, age [mean ± SEM] 26 ± 1 years, BMI 24 ± 0.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c 7.3 ± 0.2%) were studied in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study, with 2-h intravenous administration of saline, GIP, or GLP-1. The first hour, plasma glucose was lowered by insulin infusion, and the second hour constituted a "recovery phase." During the recovery phase, GIP infusions elicited larger glucagon responses (164 ± 50 [GIP] vs. 23 ± 25 [GLP-1] vs. 17 ± 46 [saline] min ⋅ pmol/L, P < 0.03) and endogenous glucose production was higher with GIP and lower with GLP-1 compared with saline (P < 0.02). On the GIP days, significantly less exogenous glucose was needed to keep plasma glucose above 2 mmol/L (155 ± 36 [GIP] vs. 232 ± 40 [GLP-1] vs. 212 ± 56 [saline] mg ⋅ kg(-1), P < 0.05). Levels of insulin, cortisol, growth hormone, and noradrenaline, as well as hypoglycemic symptoms and cognitive function, were similar on all days. Our results suggest that during hypoglycemia in patients with T1DM, exogenous GIP increases glucagon responses during the recovery phase after hypoglycemia and reduces the need for glucose administration.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)72-78
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015

ID: 132047438