Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus: status and perspectives
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Lars Hansen, Oluf Pedersen
Throughout the last decade, molecular genetic studies of non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus have contributed significantly to our present understanding of this disease's complex aetiopathogenesis. Monogenic forms of diabetes (maturity-onset diabetes of the young, MODY) have been identified and classified into MODY1-6 according to the mutated genes that by being expressed in the pancreatic beta-cells confirm at the molecular level the clinical presentation of MODY as a predominantly insulin secretory deficient form of diabetes mellitus. Genomewide linkage studies of presumed polygenic type 2 diabetic populations indicate that loci on chromosomes 1q, 5q, 8p, 10q, 12q and 20q contain susceptibility genes. Yet, so far, the only susceptibility gene, calpain-10 (CAPN10), which has been identified using genomewide linkage studies, is located on chromosome 2q37. Mutation analyses of selected 'candidate' susceptibility genes in various populations have also identified the widespread Pro12Ala variant of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and the common Glu23Lys variant of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Kir6.2 (KCNJ11). These variants may contribute significantly to the risk type 2 diabetes conferring insulin resistance of liver, muscle and fat (Pro12Ala) and a relative insulin secretory deficiency (Glu23Lys). It is likely that, in the near future, the recent more detailed knowledge of the human genome and insights into its haploblocks together with the developments of high-throughput and cheap genotyping will facilitate the discovery of many more type 2 diabetes gene variants in study materials, which are statistically powered and phenotypically well characterized. The results of these efforts are likely to be the platform for major progress in the development of personalized antidiabetic drugs with higher efficacy and few side effects.
|Journal||Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism|
|Number of pages||14|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|
- Age of Onset, Calpain, Chromosomes, Human, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Insulin, Islets of Langerhans, Muscle, Skeletal, Mutation, PPAR gamma, Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying, Signal Transduction