Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study

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Line Quist Bendtsen, Janne Kunchel Lorenzen, Sisse Gomes, Bjørn Liaset, Jens Juul Holst, Christian Ritz, Søren Reitelseder, Anders Mikael Sjödin, Arne Astrup

Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed no differences in 24 h and postprandial EE or appetite regulation. However, lipid oxidation, estimated from the respiratory quotient (RQ), was found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC during daytime (P= 0·014) as well as during the time after the breakfast meal (P= 0·008) when the food was provided. Likewise, NEFA concentrations were found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC and IC (P< 0·01). However, there was no overall difference in the concentration of insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1. In conclusion, dietary treatments when served as high-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on EE and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume112
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)1412-1422
Number of pages11
ISSN0007-1145
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

ID: 123233261