To dissect the interaction between beta-arrestin ((beta)arr) and family B G protein-coupled receptors, we constructed fusion proteins between the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor and (beta)arr2. The fusion constructs had an increase in apparent affinity selectively for glucagon, suggesting that (beta)arr2 interaction locks the receptor in a high-affinity conformation, which can be explored by some, but not all, ligands. The fusion constructs adopted a signaling phenotype governed by the tethered (beta)arr2 with an attenuated G protein-mediated cAMP signal and a higher maximal internalization compared with wild-type receptors. This distinct phenotype of the fusion proteins can not be mimicked by coexpressing wild-type receptor with (beta)arr2. However, when the wild-type receptor was coexpressed with both (beta)arr2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5, a phenotype similar to that observed for the fusion constructs was observed. We conclude that the glucagon-like peptide 1 fusion construct mimics the natural interaction of the receptor with (beta)arr2 with respect to binding peptide ligands, G protein-mediated signaling and internalization, and that this distinct molecular phenotype is reminiscent of that which has previously been characterized for family A G protein-coupled receptors, suggesting similarities in the effect of (beta)arr interaction between family A and B receptors also at the molecular level.
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Arrestins; Binding, Competitive; COS Cells; Cyclic AMP; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; GTP-Binding Proteins; Green Fluorescent Proteins; Humans; Kinetics; Ligands; Molecular Sequence Data; Phenotype; Protein Binding; Protein Conformation; Receptors, Glucagon; Recombinant Fusion Proteins; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Signal Transduction; Time Factors; Transfection