Addition of rye bran and pea fiber to pork meatballs enhances subjective satiety in healthy men, but does not change glycemic or hormonal responses: A randomized crossover meal test study
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Background: The development of high-protein, fiber-rich foods targeting appetite control could be an efficient tool in obesity prevention.Objectives: We investigated whether ad libitum energy intake (EI), appetite, and metabolic markers in a meal context were affected by 1) fiber addition (rye bran and pea fiber) to pork meatballs, 2) the food matrix of the fiber (fiber meatballs compared with fiber bread), or 3) the protein source (animal compared with vegetable protein patties).Methods: In a crossover design, 40 healthy men [mean ± SD: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), 22.2 ± 1.9; age, 23.3 ± 2.9 y] consumed 4 test meals: a low-fiber meal consisting of pork meatballs plus wheat bread (LF meal); pork meatballs plus fiber bread; fiber meatballs plus wheat bread, and vegetable patties with a natural fiber content plus wheat bread (∼3000 kJ; protein ∼18% of energy, carbohydrate ∼50% of energy, fat ∼30% of energy; 13 g fiber in the fiber meals). Ad libitum EI after 4 h was the primary endpoint. Moreover, appetite sensations and postprandial responses of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY 3-36, and plasma amino acids were measured.Results: Ad libitum EI did not differ significantly between the meals. Satiety and fullness increased 11% and 13%, respectively, and hunger and prospective intake decreased 17% and 15%, respectively, after the meal of fiber meatballs plus wheat bread compared with the LF meal (P < 0.01). Hormonal and metabolic responses did not differ between the meals. In general, plasma amino acid concentrations were higher after the fiber-rich meals than after the LF meal.Conclusions: Meals based on meatballs and bread with differences in the fiber content, food matrix of fiber, and protein source had similar effects on ad libitum EI in healthy men. However, fiber addition to pork meatballs favorably affected appetite sensations but without changes in hormonal and metabolic responses. Moreover, animal- and vegetable-protein-based, fiber-matched meals had similar effects on appetite regulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02521805.
|Journal||Journal of Nutrition|
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|
- Meat, Protein, Appetite, Plasma amino acids, Appetite-regulating hormones, Healthy normal-weight men, Rye bran, Pea fiber, Vegetable protein