Acquired Resistance to a MET Antibody In Vivo Can Be Overcome by the MET Antibody Mixture Sym015

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Sofie Ellebaek Pollmann, Valerie S Calvert, Shruti Rao, Simina M Boca, Subha Madhavan, Ivan D Horak, Andreas Kjær, Emanuel F Petricoin, Michael Kragh, Thomas Tuxen Poulsen

Failure of clinical trials due to development of resistance to MET-targeting therapeutic agents is an emerging problem. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors are well described, whereas characterization of mechanisms of resistance toward MET-targeting antibodies is limited. This study investigated mechanisms underlying in vivo resistance to two antibody therapeutics currently in clinical development: an analogue of the MET-targeting antibody emibetuzumab and Sym015, a mixture of two antibodies targeting nonoverlapping epitopes of MET. Upon long-term in vivo treatment of a MET-amplified gastric cancer xenograft model (SNU-5), emibetuzumab-resistant, but not Sym015-resistant, tumors emerged. Resistant tumors were isolated and used to establish resistant cell lines. Characterization of both tumors and cell lines using extensive protein and signaling pathway activation mapping along with next-generation sequencing revealed two distinct resistance profiles, one involving PTEN loss and the other involving activation of the PI3K pathway, likely via MYC and ERBB3 copy number gains. PTEN loss left one model unaffected by PI3K/AKT targeting but sensitive to mTOR targeting, while the PI3K pathway-activated model was partly sensitive to targeting of multiple PI3K pathway proteins. Importantly, both resistant models were sensitive to treatment with Sym015 in vivo due to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediated tumor growth inhibition, MET degradation, and signaling inhibition. Taken together, our data provide key insights into potential mechanisms of resistance to a single MET-targeting antibody, demonstrate superiority of Sym015 in preventing acquired resistance, and confirm Sym015 antitumor activity in tumors resistant to a single MET antibody. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(6); 1259-70. ©2018 AACR.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecular Cancer Therapeutics
Volume17
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1259-1270
Number of pages12
ISSN1535-7163
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

ID: 218719638