The comparative utility of oral swabs and probang samples for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in cattle and pigs

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in oral swab and probang samples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype O FMDV. During acute infection, FMDV RNA was measurable in oral swabs as well as in probang samples from both species. FMDV RNA could be detected in oral swabs and probang samples from a time point corresponding to the onset of viremia in directly inoculated animals, whereas animals which were infected through contact exposure had low levels of FMDV RNA in oral swabs before viral RNA could be measured in serum. Analysis of samples collected from cattle persistently infected with FMDV showed that it was not possible to detect FMDV RNA in oral swabs harvested beyond 10 days post infection (dpi), despite the presence of FMDV RNA in probang samples that had been collected as late as 35 dpi. An interesting feature of the persistent infection in the cattle was the apparent decline in the level of FMDV RNA in probang samples after the acute phase of infection, which was followed by a marked rise again (in all the carrier animals) by 28 dpi. Results from this study indicate that qRT-PCR analysis of oral swabs is a useful approach in order to achieve a time efficient and reliable initial diagnosis of acute FMD in cattle and pigs, whereas probang sampling is essential for the detection of cattle that are persistently infected "carriers" of FMDV.

Original languageEnglish
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Issue number2-4
Pages (from-to)330-337
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2013

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • Animals, Carrier State/diagnosis, Cattle, Cattle Diseases/diagnosis, Foot-and-Mouth Disease/blood, Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics, RNA, Viral/analysis, Sus scrofa, Swine, Swine Diseases/diagnosis, Viremia/diagnosis

ID: 257916937