The Baseline Gut Microbiota Directs Dieting-Induced Weight Loss Trajectories

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Background & Aims: Elucidating key factors affecting personal responses to food is the first step toward implementing personalized nutrition strategies in for example weight loss programs. Here, we aimed to identify factors of importance for individual weight loss trajectories in a natural setting where participants were provided dietary advice but otherwise asked to self-manage the daily caloric intake and data reporting. Methods: A 6-month weight-reduction program with longitudinal collection of dietary, physical activity, body weight, and fecal microbiome data as well as single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in 83 participants was conducted, followed by integration of the high-dimensional data to define the most determining factors for weight loss in a dietician-guided, smartphone-assisted dieting program. Results: The baseline gut microbiota was found to outperform other factors as a predieting predictor of individual weight loss trajectories. Weight loss was also linked to the magnitude of changes in abundances of certain bacterial species during dieting. Ruminococcus gnavus (MGS0160) was significantly enriched in obese individuals and decreased during weight loss. Akkermansia muciniphila (MGS0120) and Alistipes obesi (MGS0342) were significantly enriched in lean individuals, and their abundance increased during dieting. Finally, Blautia wexlerae (MGS0575) and Bacteroides dorei (MGS0187) were the strongest predictors for weight loss when present in high abundance at baseline. Conclusion: Altogether, the baseline gut microbiota was found to excel as a central personal factor in capturing the relationship between dietary factors and weight loss among individuals on a dieting program.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)2029-2042, e1-e16
Publication statusPublished - 2021

    Research areas

  • Gut Microbiota, Nutritional Responses, Weight Loss Program, Weight Prediction

ID: 272063107