Pancreatic effects of GLP-1

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a key hormone for regulation of blood glucose and satiety in humans. It is produced by L-cells of the gut epithelium and is particularly known as an incretin hormone that reduces post prandial blood glucose levels by stimulation of insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. But perhaps equally importantly, GLP-1’s glucose lowering effects are attributable to a strong inhibition of glucagon secretion, and, thereby, a reduction of hepatic glucose output. The effects of GLP-1 on insulin secretion are mediated by binding of the hormone to the receptor (GLP-1r) on the pancreatic β-cell, which increases intracellular cAMP levels and sets in motion a plethora of events that lead to secretion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on the α-cell may be indirect, involving paracrine intra-islet regulation by somatostatin and possibly also insulin, although GLP-1 also inhibits glucagon secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Besides these acute effects on the endocrine pancreas, GLP-1 also appears to have a positive effect on β-cell mass. In the following we will review GLP-1’s pancreatic effects with particular focus on its effects on pancreatic islets hormone secretion.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDiapedia : The Living Textbook of Diabetes
PublisherEuropean Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)
Publication date22 Dec 2014
Publication statusPublished - 22 Dec 2014

ID: 138727484