Managing patients on direct factor Xa inhibitors with rapid thrombelastography

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The use of direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban and apixaban (XABANs) has rapidly increased; however, there is no validated test available to monitor the effect on hemostasis. This study aims to assess how hemostatic management based on the Rapid Thromboelastography (R-TEG) variable activated clotting time (ACT) of XABAN patients with ongoing bleedings or in need for acute surgical intervention, affected patient outcome. A total of 343 XABAN patients were included in the main analysis together with 50 healthy volunteers to validate the reference value for ACT. An ACT >120 s (s) was defined as having XABAN-induced coagulopathy. Sixty-five percent of the XABAN patients presented with R-TEG ACT within the normal reference. Patients with XABAN-induced coagulopathy had a significantly increased risk of severe bleeding. Significantly more patients with extra-cerebral bleeding (ECB) and ACT above 120 s were transfused with five red blood cell (RBC) units or more compared to patients with ACT at 120 s or below (17% vs. 3%, p <.05). Significantly more XABAN-patients with ACT above 120 s received pro-hemostatic intervention with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) when compared to those with ACT at 120 s or below (ECB: 2% vs. 8%, p =.03, intracranial hemorrhage: 25% vs. 68%, p <.00). Patients who received PCC had a higher 30- and 90-day mortality compared to the rest of the cohort (16% vs. 6%, p =.02 and 21% vs. 7%, p =.00). Patients with XABAN-induced coagulopathy as evaluated by R-TEG ACT presented with more severe bleeding and higher transfusion requirements when compared to those with ACT in the normal range. This suggests that R-TEG ACT measurement in XABAN patients with active hemorrhage or in need for acute surgery may be of clinical value.

Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)661-669
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Medisinsk Fysiologisk Forenings Forlag (MFFF).

    Research areas

  • Anticoagulants, apixaban, drug monitoring, hemorrhage, hemostatics, rivaroxaban, thrombelastography

ID: 285872430