Genomic Analyses of Breast Cancer Progression Reveal Distinct Routes of Metastasis Emergence

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  • srep43813

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  • Anne Bruun Krøigård
  • Martin Jakob Larsen
  • Charlotte Brasch-Andersen
  • Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke
  • Ann S Knoop
  • Jeanette Dupont Jensen
  • Martin Bak
  • Jan Mollenhauer
  • Mads Thomassen
  • Torben A Kruse

A main controversy in cancer research is whether metastatic abilities are present in the most advanced clone of the primary tumor or result from independently acquired aberrations in early disseminated cancer cells as suggested by the linear and the parallel progression models, respectively. The genetic concordance between different steps of malignant progression is mostly unexplored as very few studies have included cancer samples separated by both space and time. We applied whole exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing to 26 successive samples from six patients with metastatic estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Our data provide support for both linear and parallel progression towards metastasis. We report for the first time evidence of metastasis-to-metastasis seeding in breast cancer. Our results point to three distinct routes of metastasis emergence. This may have profound clinical implications and provides substantial novel molecular insights into the timing and mutational evolution of breast cancer metastasis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number43813
JournalScientific Reports
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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