Associations of Maternal Educational Level, Proximity to Green Space During Pregnancy, and Gestational Diabetes With Body Mass Index From Infancy to Early Adulthood: A Proof-of-Concept Federated Analysis in 18 Birth Cohorts

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  • Ahmed Elhakeem
  • Paula Carrasco
  • Lucinda Calas
  • Marloes Cardol
  • Marie-Aline Charles
  • Eva Corpeleijn
  • Sarah Crozier
  • Montserrat de Castro
  • Marisa Estarlich
  • Amanda Fernandes
  • Serena Fossatti
  • Dariusz Gruszfeld
  • Kathrin Guerlich
  • Veit Grote
  • Sido Haakma
  • Jennifer R Harris
  • Barbara Heude
  • Rae-Chi Huang
  • Jesús Ibarluzea
  • Hazel Inskip
  • Vincent Jaddoe
  • Berthold Koletzko
  • Sandrine Lioret
  • Veronica Luque
  • Yannis Manios
  • Giovenale Moirano
  • George Moschonis
  • Johanna Nader
  • Mark Nieuwenhuijsen
  • Rosie McEachen
  • Maja Popovic
  • Theano Roumeliotaki
  • Theodosia Salika
  • Loreto Santa Marina
  • Susana Santos
  • Sylvain Serbert
  • Evangelia Tzorovili
  • Marina Vafeiadi
  • Elvira Verduci
  • Martine Vrijheid
  • T G M Vrijkotte
  • Marieke Welten
  • John Wright
  • Tiffany C Yang
  • Daniela Zugna
  • Deborah Lawlor

International sharing of cohort data for research is important and challenging. We explored the feasibility of multicohort federated analyses by examining associations between 3 pregnancy exposures (maternal education, exposure to green vegetation, and gestational diabetes) and offspring body mass index (BMI) from infancy to age 17 years. We used data from 18 cohorts (n = 206,180 mother-child pairs) from the EU Child Cohort Network and derived BMI at ages 0-1, 2-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14-17 years. Associations were estimated using linear regression via 1-stage individual participant data meta-analysis using DataSHIELD. Associations between lower maternal education and higher child BMI emerged from age 4 and increased with age (difference in BMI z score comparing low with high education, at age 2-3 years = 0.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.00, 0.05), at 4-7 years = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.17), and at 8-13 years = 0.24 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.26)). Gestational diabetes was positively associated with BMI from age 8 years (BMI z score difference = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.25) but not at younger ages; however, associations attenuated towards the null when restricted to cohorts that measured gestational diabetes via universal screening. Exposure to green vegetation was weakly associated with higher BMI up to age 1 year but not at older ages. Opportunities of cross-cohort federated analyses are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)753-763
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

    Research areas

  • Humans, Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology, Female, Pregnancy, Body Mass Index, Adolescent, Infant, Child, Preschool, Child, Educational Status, Male, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology, Birth Cohort, Infant, Newborn, Adult, Proof of Concept Study, Parks, Recreational/statistics & numerical data

ID: 391491861