Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation: anatomical and electrophysiological analyses

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Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation : anatomical and electrophysiological analyses. / Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Burns, Joan; Reiner, Peter B; Semba, Kazue.

In: European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2002, p. 176-96.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Kohlmeier, KA, Burns, J, Reiner, PB & Semba, K 2002, 'Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation: anatomical and electrophysiological analyses', European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 176-96.

APA

Kohlmeier, K. A., Burns, J., Reiner, P. B., & Semba, K. (2002). Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation: anatomical and electrophysiological analyses. European Journal of Neuroscience, 15(1), 176-96.

Vancouver

Kohlmeier KA, Burns J, Reiner PB, Semba K. Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation: anatomical and electrophysiological analyses. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2002;15(1):176-96.

Author

Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne ; Burns, Joan ; Reiner, Peter B ; Semba, Kazue. / Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation : anatomical and electrophysiological analyses. In: European Journal of Neuroscience. 2002 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 176-96.

Bibtex

@article{030caa4790634653a22e75b5aa96da41,
title = "Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation: anatomical and electrophysiological analyses",
abstract = "Release of acetylcholine within the pontine reticular formation (PRF) from the axon terminals of mesopontine cholinergic neurons has long been hypothesized to play an important role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep generation. As some of these cholinergic neurons are known to contain substance P (SP), we used anatomical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques to characterize this projection in the rat. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated that 16{\%} of all cholinergic neurons within the mesopontine tegmentum contained SP; this percentage increased to 27{\%} in its caudal regions. When double immunofluorescence was combined with retrograde tracing techniques, it was observed that up to 11{\%} of all SP-containing cholinergic neurons project to the PRF. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from in vitro brainstem slices revealed that SP administration depolarized or evoked an inward current in a dose-dependent manner in all PRF neurons examined, and that these effects were antagonized by a SP antagonist. The amplitude of the SP-induced inward current varied with changes in the Na+ concentration, did not reverse at the calculated K+ or Cl- equilibrium potentials, and was not attenuated in the presence of tetrodotoxin, low Ca2+ concentration or caesium ions. These data suggest that activation of a tetrodotoxin-insensitive cation channel(s) permeable to Na+ is responsible for a SP-induced inward current at resting membrane potentials. The depolarizing actions of SP appeared to be primarily due to activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway, and were additive with cholinergic receptor activation even at maximal concentrations. These data indicate that SP is colocalized in a subpopulation of mesopontine tegmental cholinergic neurons projecting to REM sleep-induction regions of the PRF, and that actions of these two neuroactive substances on PRF neurons are additive. If SP is coreleased with acetylcholine, the additive actions of the two neurotransmitters might heighten the excitability of postsynaptic PRF neurons and ensure the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep.",
keywords = "Animals, Autonomic Pathways, Choline O-Acetyltransferase, Electrophysiology, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Immunohistochemistry, Neurons, Parasympathetic Nervous System, Patch-Clamp Techniques, Pons, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Reticular Formation, Sleep, REM, Substance P",
author = "Kohlmeier, {Kristi Anne} and Joan Burns and Reiner, {Peter B} and Kazue Semba",
year = "2002",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "176--96",
journal = "European Journal of Neuroscience",
issn = "0953-816X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Substance P in the descending cholinergic projection to REM sleep-induction regions of the rat pontine reticular formation

T2 - anatomical and electrophysiological analyses

AU - Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

AU - Burns, Joan

AU - Reiner, Peter B

AU - Semba, Kazue

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Release of acetylcholine within the pontine reticular formation (PRF) from the axon terminals of mesopontine cholinergic neurons has long been hypothesized to play an important role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep generation. As some of these cholinergic neurons are known to contain substance P (SP), we used anatomical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques to characterize this projection in the rat. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated that 16% of all cholinergic neurons within the mesopontine tegmentum contained SP; this percentage increased to 27% in its caudal regions. When double immunofluorescence was combined with retrograde tracing techniques, it was observed that up to 11% of all SP-containing cholinergic neurons project to the PRF. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from in vitro brainstem slices revealed that SP administration depolarized or evoked an inward current in a dose-dependent manner in all PRF neurons examined, and that these effects were antagonized by a SP antagonist. The amplitude of the SP-induced inward current varied with changes in the Na+ concentration, did not reverse at the calculated K+ or Cl- equilibrium potentials, and was not attenuated in the presence of tetrodotoxin, low Ca2+ concentration or caesium ions. These data suggest that activation of a tetrodotoxin-insensitive cation channel(s) permeable to Na+ is responsible for a SP-induced inward current at resting membrane potentials. The depolarizing actions of SP appeared to be primarily due to activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway, and were additive with cholinergic receptor activation even at maximal concentrations. These data indicate that SP is colocalized in a subpopulation of mesopontine tegmental cholinergic neurons projecting to REM sleep-induction regions of the PRF, and that actions of these two neuroactive substances on PRF neurons are additive. If SP is coreleased with acetylcholine, the additive actions of the two neurotransmitters might heighten the excitability of postsynaptic PRF neurons and ensure the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep.

AB - Release of acetylcholine within the pontine reticular formation (PRF) from the axon terminals of mesopontine cholinergic neurons has long been hypothesized to play an important role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep generation. As some of these cholinergic neurons are known to contain substance P (SP), we used anatomical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques to characterize this projection in the rat. Double immunofluorescence demonstrated that 16% of all cholinergic neurons within the mesopontine tegmentum contained SP; this percentage increased to 27% in its caudal regions. When double immunofluorescence was combined with retrograde tracing techniques, it was observed that up to 11% of all SP-containing cholinergic neurons project to the PRF. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from in vitro brainstem slices revealed that SP administration depolarized or evoked an inward current in a dose-dependent manner in all PRF neurons examined, and that these effects were antagonized by a SP antagonist. The amplitude of the SP-induced inward current varied with changes in the Na+ concentration, did not reverse at the calculated K+ or Cl- equilibrium potentials, and was not attenuated in the presence of tetrodotoxin, low Ca2+ concentration or caesium ions. These data suggest that activation of a tetrodotoxin-insensitive cation channel(s) permeable to Na+ is responsible for a SP-induced inward current at resting membrane potentials. The depolarizing actions of SP appeared to be primarily due to activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway, and were additive with cholinergic receptor activation even at maximal concentrations. These data indicate that SP is colocalized in a subpopulation of mesopontine tegmental cholinergic neurons projecting to REM sleep-induction regions of the PRF, and that actions of these two neuroactive substances on PRF neurons are additive. If SP is coreleased with acetylcholine, the additive actions of the two neurotransmitters might heighten the excitability of postsynaptic PRF neurons and ensure the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep.

KW - Animals

KW - Autonomic Pathways

KW - Choline O-Acetyltransferase

KW - Electrophysiology

KW - Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

KW - Immunohistochemistry

KW - Neurons

KW - Parasympathetic Nervous System

KW - Patch-Clamp Techniques

KW - Pons

KW - Rats

KW - Rats, Wistar

KW - Reticular Formation

KW - Sleep, REM

KW - Substance P

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 11860518

VL - 15

SP - 176

EP - 196

JO - European Journal of Neuroscience

JF - European Journal of Neuroscience

SN - 0953-816X

IS - 1

ER -

ID: 38346610