Structure and ion-release mechanism of PIB-4-type ATPases

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Transition metals, such as zinc, are essential micronutrients in all organisms, but also highly toxic in excessive amounts. Heavy-metal transporting P-type (PIB) ATPases are crucial for homeostasis, conferring cellular detoxification and redistribution through transport of these ions across cellular membranes. No structural information is available for the PIB-4-ATPases, the subclass with the broadest cargo scope, and hence even their topology remains elusive. Here we present structures and complementary functional analyses of an archetypal PIB-4-ATPase, sCoaT from Sulfitobacter sp. NAS14-1. The data disclose the architecture, devoid of classical so-called heavy metal binding domains, and provides fundamentally new insights into the mechanism and diversity of heavy metal transporters. We reveal several novel P-type ATPase features, including a dual role in heavy-metal release and as an internal counter ion of an invariant Page 2 histidine. We also establish that the turn-over of PIB-ATPases is potassium independent, contrasting to many other P-type ATPases. Combined with new inhibitory compounds, our results open up for efforts in e.g. drug discovery, since PIB-4-ATPases function as virulence factors in many pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere73124
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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