Robust arm and leg muscle adaptation to training despite ACE inhibition: a randomized placebo-controlled trial
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Purpose: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment is widely applied, but the fact that plasma ACE activity is a potential determinant of training-induced local muscular adaptability is often neglected. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that ACE inhibition modulates the response to systematic aerobic exercise training on leg and arm muscular adaptations.
Methods: Healthy, untrained, middle-aged participants (40 ± 7 yrs) completed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to placebo (PLA: CaCO3) or ACE inhibitor (ACEi: enalapril) for 8 weeks and completed a supervised, high-intensity exercise training program. Muscular characteristics in the leg and arm were extensively evaluated pre and post-intervention.
Results: Forty-eight participants (nACEi = 23, nPLA = 25) completed the trial. Exercise training compliance was above 99%. After training, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase maximal activity were increased in m. vastus lateralis in both groups (all P < 0.05) without statistical differences between them (all time × treatment P > 0.05). In m. deltoideus, citrate synthase maximal activity was upregulated to a greater extent (time × treatment P < 0.05) in PLA (51 [33;69] %) than in ACEi (28 [13;43] %), but the change in 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase maximal activity was similar between groups. Finally, the training-induced changes in the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 protein abundance, a marker of capillary density, were similar in both groups in m. vastus lateralis and m. deltoideus.
Conclusion: Eight weeks of high-intensity whole-body exercise training improves markers of skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, glycolytic capacity and angiogenesis, with no overall effect of pharmacological ACE inhibition in healthy adults.
|Journal||European Journal of Applied Physiology|
|Number of pages||13|
|Publication status||Published - 2023|
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Faculty of Science - Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Muscle oxidative capacity, High-intensity interval training, Muscle-specific adaptations, Angiogenesis