Risk assessment of African swine fever in the south-eastern countries of Europe

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


  • Julio Alvarez
  • Dominique Bicout
  • Paolo Calistri
  • Klaus Depner
  • Julian Ashley Drewe
  • Bruno Garin-Bastuji
  • Jose Luis Gonzales Rojas
  • Virginie Michel
  • Miguel Angel Miranda
  • Helen Roberts
  • Liisa Sihvonen
  • Hans Spoolder
  • Karl Stahl
  • Arvo Viltrop
  • Christoph Winckler
  • Anette Botner
  • Simon J. More
  • Hans-Hermann Thulke
  • Sotiria-Eleni Antoniou
  • Jose Cortinas Abrahantes
  • Sofie Dhollander
  • Andrey Gogin
  • Alexandra Papanikolaou
  • Laura C. Gonzalez Villeta
  • Christian Gortazar Schmidt
The European Commission requested EFSA to estimate the risk of spread of African swine fever (ASF) and to identify potential risk factors (indicators) for the spread of ASF, given introduction in the south‐eastern countries of Europe (region of concern, ROC), namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia. Three EU Member States (MS) – Croatia, Greece and Slovenia – were included in the ROC due to their geographical location and ASF‐free status. Based on collected information on potential risk factors (indicators) for each country and the relevant EU regulations in force, the estimated probability of spread of ASF within the ROC within one year after introduction into the ROC was assessed to be very high (from 66% to 100%). This estimate was determined after considering the high number of indicators present in most of the countries in the ROC and the known effect that these indicators can have on ASF spread, especially those related to the structure of the domestic pig sector, the presence of wild boar and social factors. The presence of indicators varies between countries in the ROC. Each country is at risk of ASF spread following introduction; however, some countries may have a higher probability of ASF spread following introduction. In addition, the probability of ASF spread from the ROC to EU MSs outside the ROC within one year after introduction of ASF in the ROC was estimated to be very low to low (from 0% to 15%). This estimate was based on the comparison of the indicators present in the ROC and the already affected countries in south‐eastern Europe, such as Bulgaria and Romania, where there was no evidence of ASF spread to other EU MS within one year.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5861
JournalEFSA Journal
Issue number11
Number of pages53
Publication statusPublished - 2019

    Research areas

  • African Swine Fever, risk, spread, south-eastern Europe

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