β-Lactoglobulin Is Insulinotropic Compared with Casein and Whey Protein Ingestion during Catabolic Conditions in Men in a Double-Blinded Randomized Crossover Trial

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BACKGROUND: Muscle loss during acute infectious disease is mainly triggered by inflammation, immobilization, and malnutrition.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare muscle protein kinetics and metabolism following ingestion of the dairy protein supplements β-lactoglobulin (BLG), casein (CAS), and whey (WHE) during controlled catabolic conditions.

METHODS: We used a randomized crossover design (registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03319550) to investigate 9 healthy male participants [age: 20-40 y; BMI (in kg/m2) 20-30] who were randomly assigned servings of BLG, CAS, or WHE (0.6 g protein/kg, one-third as bolus and two-thirds as sip every 20 min) on 3 separate occasions separated by ∼6-8 wk. The participants received an infusion of lipopolysaccharide (1 ng/kg) combined with 36 h of fasting and bed rest before each study day, mimicking a clinical catabolic condition. The forearm model and isotopic tracer techniques were used to quantify muscle protein kinetics. Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained and intramyocellular signaling investigated using Western blot.

RESULTS: BLG, CAS, and WHE improved the net balance of phenylalanine (NBphe) from baseline with ∼75% (P < 0.001) with no difference between interventions (primary outcome, P < 0.05). No difference in rates of appearance and disappearance of phenylalanine or in intramyocellular signaling activation was found between interventions (secondary outcomes). The incremental AUC for serum insulin was 62% higher following BLG compared with CAS (P < 0.001) and 30% higher compared with WHE (P = 0.002), as well as 25% higher in WHE compared with CAS (P = 0.006). Following BLG consumption, plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) increased 70% compared with CAS (P = 0.001) and increased 34% compared with WHE (P = 0.06). No significant difference was found between WHE and CAS (P = 0.12).

CONCLUSION: BLG, WHE, and CAS have similar effects on muscle in young male participants during catabolic conditions. BLG showed specific, possibly GIP-dependent, insulinotropic properties, which may have future clinical implications.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of Nutrition
ISSN0022-3166
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Mar 2021

ID: 258893420