Hypochlorite-mediated fragmentation of hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfates, and related N-acetyl glycosamines: evidence for chloramide intermediates, free radical transfer reactions, and site-specific fragmentation
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Myeloperoxidase released from activated phagocytes reacts with H(2)O(2) in the presence of chloride ions to give hypochlorous acid. This oxidant has been implicated in the fragmentation of glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates. In this study it is shown that reaction of HOCl with glycosaminoglycans and model compounds yields chloramides derived from the N-acetyl function of the glycosamine rings. The results of EPR spin trapping and product studies are consistent with the formation of amidyl radicals from these chloramides via both metal ion-dependent and -independent processes. In the case of glycosaminoglycan-derived amidyl radicals, evidence has been obtained in studies with model glycosides that these radicals undergo rapid intramolecular abstraction reactions to give carbon-centered radicals at C-2 on the N-acetyl glycosamine rings (via a 1,2-hydrogen atom shift) and at C-4 on the neighboring uronic acid residues (via 1,5-hydrogen atom shifts). The C-4 carbon-centered radicals, and analogous species derived from model glycosides, undergo pH-independent beta-scission reactions that result in glycosidic bond cleavage. With N-acetyl glucosamine C-1 alkyl glycosides, product formation via this mechanism is near quantitative with respect to chloramide loss. Analogous reactions with the glycosaminoglycans result in selective fragmentation at disaccharide intervals, as evidenced by the formation of "ladders" on gels; this selectivity is less marked under atmospheric oxygen concentrations than under anoxic conditions, due to competing peroxyl radical reactions. As the extracellular matrix plays a key role in mediating cell adhesion, growth, activation, and signaling, such HOCl-mediated glycosaminoglycan fragmentation may play a key role in disease progression and resolution, with the resulting fragments modulating the magnitude and quality of the immune response in inflammatory conditions.
|Journal||Journal of the American Chemical Society|
|Number of pages||15|
|Publication status||Published - 12 Nov 2003|
- Chondroitin Sulfates, Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Free Radicals, Glycosaminoglycans, Glycosides, Hyaluronic Acid, Hypochlorous Acid