Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2C is a hexameric AAA+ protein with a coordinated ATP hydrolysis mechanism
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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus, causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed livestock. Like other picornaviruses, FMDV has a conserved 2C protein assigned to the superfamily 3 helicases a group of AAA+ ATPases that has a predicted N-terminal membrane-binding amphipathic helix attached to the main ATPase domain. In infected cells, 2C is involved in the formation of membrane vesicles, where it co-localizes with viral RNA replication complexes, but its precise role in virus replication has not been elucidated. We show here that deletion of the predicted N-terminal amphipathic helix enables overexpression in Escherichia coli of a highly soluble truncated protein, 2C(34-318), that has ATPase and RNA binding activity. ATPase activity was abrogated by point mutations in the Walker A (K116A) and B (D160A) motifs and Motif C (N207A) in the active site. Unliganded 2C(34-318) exhibits concentration-dependent self-association to yield oligomeric forms, the largest of which is tetrameric. Strikingly, in the presence of ATP and RNA, FMDV 2C(34-318) containing the N207A mutation, which binds but does not hydrolyze ATP, was found to oligomerize specifically into hexamers. Visualization of FMDV 2C-ATP-RNA complexes by negative stain electron microscopy revealed hexameric ring structures with 6-fold symmetry that are characteristic of AAA+ ATPases. ATPase assays performed by mixing purified active and inactive 2C(34-318) subunits revealed a coordinated mechanism of ATP hydrolysis. Our results provide new insights into the structure and mechanism of picornavirus 2C proteins that will facilitate new investigations of their roles in infection.
|Journal||The Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Number of pages||13|
|Publication status||Published - 6 Aug 2010|
- Adenosine Triphosphate/chemistry, Amino Acid Motifs, Carrier Proteins/chemistry, Catalytic Domain, Escherichia coli/metabolism, Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/metabolism, Hydrolysis, Kinetics, Models, Biological, Mutation, Protein Binding, Protein Structure, Tertiary, RNA/chemistry, RNA, Viral/metabolism, Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry, Viral Proteins/chemistry