Evaluation of the HD-GLIO Deep Learning Algorithm for Brain Tumour Segmentation on Postoperative MRI

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In the context of brain tumour response assessment, deep learning-based three-dimensional (3D) tumour segmentation has shown potential to enter the routine radiological workflow. The purpose of the present study was to perform an external evaluation of a state-of-the-art deep learning 3D brain tumour segmentation algorithm (HD-GLIO) on an independent cohort of consecutive, post-operative patients. For 66 consecutive magnetic resonance imaging examinations, we compared delineations of contrast-enhancing (CE) tumour lesions and non-enhancing T2/FLAIR hyperintense abnormality (NE) lesions by the HD-GLIO algorithm and radiologists using Dice similarity coefficients (Dice). Volume agreement was assessed using concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and Bland–Altman plots. The algorithm performed very well regarding the segmentation of NE volumes (median Dice = 0.79) and CE tumour volumes larger than 1.0 cm3 (median Dice = 0.86). If considering all cases with CE tumour lesions, the performance dropped significantly (median Dice = 0.40). Volume agreement was excellent with CCCs of 0.997 (CE tumour volumes) and 0.922 (NE volumes). The findings have implications for the application of the HD-GLIO algorithm in the routine radiological workflow where small contrast-enhancing tumours will constitute a considerable share of the follow-up cases. Our study underlines that independent validations on clinical datasets are key to asserting the robustness of deep learning algorithms.
Original languageEnglish
Article number363
Issue number3
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2023

ID: 344442246