Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2021

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  • P. W. Barnes
  • T. M. Robson
  • P. J. Neale
  • C. E. Williamson
  • R. G. Zepp
  • S. Madronich
  • S. R. Wilson
  • A. L. Andrady
  • A. M. Heikkilä
  • G. H. Bernhard
  • A. F. Bais
  • R. E. Neale
  • J. F. Bornman
  • M. A.K. Jansen
  • A. R. Klekociuk
  • J. Martinez-Abaigar
  • S. A. Robinson
  • Q. W. Wang
  • A. T. Banaszak
  • D. P. Häder
  • S. Hylander
  • K. C. Rose
  • S. Wängberg
  • B. Foereid
  • W. C. Hou
  • R. Ossola
  • N. D. Paul
  • J. E. Ukpebor
  • J. Longstreth
  • T. Schikowski
  • K. R. Solomon
  • B. Sulzberger
  • L. S. Bruckman
  • K. K. Pandey
  • C. C. White
  • L. Zhu
  • M. Zhu
  • P. J. Aucamp
  • J. B. Liley
  • R. L. McKenzie
  • M. Berwick
  • S. N. Byrne
  • L. M. Hollestein
  • R. M. Lucas
  • C. M. Olsen
  • L. E. Rhodes
  • S. Yazar
  • A. R. Young

The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhotochemical and Photobiological Sciences
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)275–301
Number of pages27
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The following authors gratefully acknowledge support: PWB [J.H. Mullahy Endowment for Environmental Biology at Loyola University New Orleans]. LER [NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre]. MAKJ [Science Foundation Ireland (16-IA-4418). JM-A [MCIN/AEI/ https://doi.org/10.13039/501100011033 and by ‘ERDF A way of making Europe’ (Grant PGC2018-093824-B-C42)]. SAR [Australian Research Council (DP180100113 & DP200100223)]. TMR [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Norwegian Research Council (QUEST-UV project], and [Academy of Finland (decision #324555)]. Q-WW [CAS Young Talents Program and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41971148)]. ATB [National Autonomous University of Mexico) and thanks M. en C. Laura Celis for help with literature searches]. SH [The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and Linnaeus University]. PJN [Smithsonian Institution]. KCR [US National Science Foundation grants 1754265 and 1761805]. CEW [U.S. Global Change Research Program, NSF DEB 1754267, and NSF DEB 1950170]. BF [Research Council of Norway grant 322954]. RGZ [US Environmental Protections Agency; the views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]. MZ [National Natural Science Foundation of China (22040103) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (20JC1414900)].

Funding Information:
Open access funding was provided by Linnaeus University, Sweden.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

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