Energy availability in athletics: Health, performance and physique

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

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Energy availability in athletics : Health, performance and physique. / Melin, Anna Katarina; Heikura, Ida A; Tenforde, Adam; Mountjoy, Margo.

In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2019, p. 152-164.

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Melin, AK, Heikura, IA, Tenforde, A & Mountjoy, M 2019, 'Energy availability in athletics: Health, performance and physique', International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 152-164. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201

APA

Melin, A. K., Heikura, I. A., Tenforde, A., & Mountjoy, M. (2019). Energy availability in athletics: Health, performance and physique. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 29(2), 152-164. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201

Vancouver

Melin AK, Heikura IA, Tenforde A, Mountjoy M. Energy availability in athletics: Health, performance and physique. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. 2019;29(2):152-164. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201

Author

Melin, Anna Katarina ; Heikura, Ida A ; Tenforde, Adam ; Mountjoy, Margo. / Energy availability in athletics : Health, performance and physique. In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. 2019 ; Vol. 29, No. 2. pp. 152-164.

Bibtex

@article{6f583f5a0c8c4bbc8d104cbe36800c11,
title = "Energy availability in athletics: Health, performance and physique",
abstract = "The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18-58{\%} with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump-events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60{\%} of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23{\%} among elite sprinters. Health concerns with FHA includes impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, LEA negatively affects recovery, muscle mass, neuromuscular function, and increases the risk of injuries and illness that may affect performance negatively. LEA in track and field athletes may occur due to intentional alterations in body mass or body composition, appetite changes, time constraints, or disordered eating behaviour. Long-term LEA causes metabolic and physiological adaptations to prevent further weight-loss, and athletes may therefore be weight stable, yet have impaired physiological function secondary to LEA. Achieving or maintaining a lower body mass or fat levels through long-term LEA may therefore result in impaired health and performance as proposed in the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) model. Preventive educational programs and screening to identify athletes with LEA is important for early intervention to prevent long-term secondary health consequences. Treatment for athletes is primarily to increase energy availability and often requires a team approach including a sport physician, sports dietitian, physiologist, and psychologist.",
keywords = "Faculty of Science, Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S), Weight loss, Eating disorders, Performance, Injury",
author = "Melin, {Anna Katarina} and Heikura, {Ida A} and Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy",
note = "CURIS 2019 NEXS 077",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "152--164",
journal = "International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism",
issn = "1526-484X",
publisher = "Human Kinetics, Inc",
number = "2",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy availability in athletics

T2 - Health, performance and physique

AU - Melin, Anna Katarina

AU - Heikura, Ida A

AU - Tenforde, Adam

AU - Mountjoy, Margo

N1 - CURIS 2019 NEXS 077

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18-58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump-events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Health concerns with FHA includes impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, LEA negatively affects recovery, muscle mass, neuromuscular function, and increases the risk of injuries and illness that may affect performance negatively. LEA in track and field athletes may occur due to intentional alterations in body mass or body composition, appetite changes, time constraints, or disordered eating behaviour. Long-term LEA causes metabolic and physiological adaptations to prevent further weight-loss, and athletes may therefore be weight stable, yet have impaired physiological function secondary to LEA. Achieving or maintaining a lower body mass or fat levels through long-term LEA may therefore result in impaired health and performance as proposed in the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) model. Preventive educational programs and screening to identify athletes with LEA is important for early intervention to prevent long-term secondary health consequences. Treatment for athletes is primarily to increase energy availability and often requires a team approach including a sport physician, sports dietitian, physiologist, and psychologist.

AB - The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18-58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump-events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Health concerns with FHA includes impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, LEA negatively affects recovery, muscle mass, neuromuscular function, and increases the risk of injuries and illness that may affect performance negatively. LEA in track and field athletes may occur due to intentional alterations in body mass or body composition, appetite changes, time constraints, or disordered eating behaviour. Long-term LEA causes metabolic and physiological adaptations to prevent further weight-loss, and athletes may therefore be weight stable, yet have impaired physiological function secondary to LEA. Achieving or maintaining a lower body mass or fat levels through long-term LEA may therefore result in impaired health and performance as proposed in the Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) model. Preventive educational programs and screening to identify athletes with LEA is important for early intervention to prevent long-term secondary health consequences. Treatment for athletes is primarily to increase energy availability and often requires a team approach including a sport physician, sports dietitian, physiologist, and psychologist.

KW - Faculty of Science

KW - Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)

KW - Weight loss

KW - Eating disorders

KW - Performance

KW - Injury

U2 - 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201

DO - 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0201

M3 - Review

C2 - 30632422

VL - 29

SP - 152

EP - 164

JO - International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism

JF - International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism

SN - 1526-484X

IS - 2

ER -

ID: 212851781