Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking
Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review
PURPOSE: A meta-analysis including 11,900 cases showed that maternal gestational smoking was associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. The aim of study was to investigate whether a hormone profile of cryptorchid boys and a supplementing histopathological evaluation of testicular biopsies could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism.
METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B.
RESULTS: 501 boys were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross section (p = 0.009), frequency of germ cells positive for PLAP (p = 0.037) and inhibin-B (p = 0.042).
CONCLUSIONS: All findings could be associated with placental dysfunction with altered human chorionic gonadotropin production well described in women smoking during pregnancy.
TYPE OF STUDY: Prognosis study (prospective cohort study with >80% follow-up).
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1.
|Journal||Journal of Pediatric Surgery|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2019|