Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking

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Simone Hildorf, Erik Clasen-Linde, Lihua Dong, Dina Cortes, Jorgen Thorup

PURPOSE: A meta-analysis including 11,900 cases showed that maternal gestational smoking was associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. The aim of study was to investigate whether a hormone profile of cryptorchid boys and a supplementing histopathological evaluation of testicular biopsies could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism.

METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B.

RESULTS: 501 boys were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross section (p = 0.009), frequency of germ cells positive for PLAP (p = 0.037) and inhibin-B (p = 0.042).

CONCLUSIONS: All findings could be associated with placental dysfunction with altered human chorionic gonadotropin production well described in women smoking during pregnancy.

TYPE OF STUDY: Prognosis study (prospective cohort study with >80% follow-up).


Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019

ID: 212820704