Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease
Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review
Context: Individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have a high risk of coronary artery disease, but their risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown.
Objective: In individuals with clinical FH, we tested the hypotheses (1) that the risks of PAD and CKD are elevated and (2) that low ankle-brachial index (ABI) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are associated with a high risk of myocardial infarction.
Design and Setting: Prospective cohort study of the general population.
Participants: A total of 106,172 individuals, of whom 7109 were diagnosed with FH.
Main Outcome Measures: PAD, CKD, and myocardial infarction.
Results: Compared with individuals with unlikely FH, multivariable adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of PAD were 1.84 (1.70 to 2.00) in those with possible FH and 1.36 (1.00 to 1.84) in individuals with probable/definite FH. For CKD, the corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 1.92 (1.78 to 2.07) and 2.42 (1.86 to 3.26). Compared with individuals with unlikely FH and ABI >0.9, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of myocardial infarction was 4.60 (2.36 to 8.97) in those with possible/probable/definite FH and ABI ≤0.9. Compared with individuals with unlikely FH and eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the corresponding value was 2.19 (1.71 to 2.82) in those with possible/probable/definite FH and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Conclusions: Individuals with clinical FH have increased risks of PAD and CKD, and low ABI and eGFR are associated with high risk of myocardial infarction. Consequently, individuals with FH should be screened for PAD and CKD, and ABI and eGFR may be used as prognostic tools in the management and treatment of FH to identify those at very high risk of myocardial infarction.
|Journal||The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|