Despite the mouse being an important laboratory species, little is known about changes in its extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicle and corpora lutea formation and regression. Follicle development was induced in mice (29 days of age/experimental day 0) by injections of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin on days 0 and 1 and ovulation was induced by injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin on day 2. Ovaries were collected for immunohistochemistry (n=10 per group) on days 0, 2 and 5. Another group was mated and ovaries were examined on day 11 (n=7). Collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan were present in the follicular basal lamina of all developmental stages. Collagen type XVIII was only found in basal lamina of primordial, primary and some preantral follicles, whereas laminin alpha2 was only detected in some preantral and antral follicles. The focimatrix, a specialised matrix of the membrana granulosa, contained collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. In the corpora lutea, staining was restricted to capillary sub-endothelial basal laminas containing collagen type IV alpha1 and alpha2, laminin alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 chains, nidogens 1 and 2, perlecan and collagen type XVIII. Laminins alpha4 and alpha5 were not immunolocalised to any structure in the mouse ovary. The ECM composition of the mouse ovary has similarities to, but also major differences from, other species with respect to nidogens 1 and 2 and perlecan.