It is possible that reduced function of DNA repair and cell-cycle control genes increases the individual susceptibility to malignant melanoma. As CHEK2 is a cell-cycle master controller, we tested the hypothesis that heterozygosity for the frameshift alteration CHEK2*1100delC is associated with increased risk of malignant melanoma. First, we performed case-control studies of 1,152 Danish and 752 German individuals with malignant melanoma compared with 9,142 Danish and 3,718 German controls. Second, we performed a meta-analysis of CHEK2*1100delC and malignant melanoma, involving 2,619 cases and 17,481 controls. Third, we examined the risk of malignant melanoma associated with CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity in an analysis stratified for sun exposure, as well as for subtype and location on the body. The odds ratios for malignant melanoma for CHEK2(*)1100del heterozygotes compared with those for noncarriers were 2.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-3.91) in Danes, 1.42 (95% CI, 0.46-4.31) in Germans, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.02-3.17) in Danes and Germans combined. In a meta-analysis, the odds ratio of malignant melanoma for CHEK2*1100delC heterozygotes compared with that for noncarriers was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.07-3.05). Stratifications did not alter these results. CHEK2*1100delC heterozygotes have a twofold risk of malignant melanoma compared with noncarriers.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 September 2011; doi:10.1038/jid.2011.303.