Changes in mitochondrial homeostasis and redox status in astronauts following long stays in space

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Hiroko P Indo, Hideyuki J Majima, Masahiro Terada, Shigeaki Suenaga, Kazuo Tomita, Shin Yamada, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Takuro Kanekura, Ikuya Nonaka, Clare Louise Hawkins, Michael J Davies, Daret K St Clair, Chiaki Mukai

The effects of long-term exposure to extreme space conditions on astronauts were investigated by analyzing hair samples from ten astronauts who had spent six months on the International Space Station (ISS). Two samples were collected before, during and after their stays in the ISS; hereafter, referred to as Preflight, Inflight and Postflight, respectively. The ratios of mitochondrial (mt) to nuclear (n) DNA and mtRNA to nRNA were analyzed via quantitative PCR. The combined data of Preflight, Inflight and Postflight show a significant reduction in the mtDNA/nDNA in Inflight, and significant reductions in the mtRNA/nRNA ratios in both the Inflight and Postflight samples. The mtRNA/mtDNA ratios were relatively constant, except in the Postflight samples. Using the same samples, the expression of redox and signal transduction related genes, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, Nrf2, Keap1, GPx4 and Catalase was also examined. The results of the combined data from Preflight, Inflight and Postflight show a significant decrease in the expression of all of the redox-related genes in the samples collected Postflight, with the exception of Catalase, which show no change. This decreased expression may contribute to increased oxidative stress Inflight resulting in the mitochondrial damage that is apparent Postflight.

Original languageEnglish
Article number39015
JournalScientific Reports
Volume6
Number of pages10
ISSN2045-2322
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2016

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